Souks have undergone functional and spatial changes in the Moroccan medinas since colonial times due to the tourist activities. The rate of the changes increased at the end of the 20th century because of the expansion of tourism projects. However, there are no publications on the evolution of Moroccan souks in the context of tourism development. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to determine the types of transformations the souks underwent as a result of the dynamic development in this sector of economy. The research focused on two imperial cities: Marrakech and Rabat. Data for analysis was obtained through observations and field interviews in 2014 and by bibliographic query. A retrospective study was carried out which included identification of mechanisms affecting the contemporary organization and physiognomy of the commercial streets. The authors’ work allowed for an identification of development phases of the Moroccan souks under the influence of tourism.
Identification of Ischemic Lesions Based on Difference Integral Maps, Comparison of Several ECG Intervals
Ischemic changes in small areas of myocardium can be detected from difference integral maps computed from body surface potentials measured on the same subject in situations with and without manifestation of ischemia. The proposed method for their detection is the inverse solution with 2 dipoles. Surface potentials were recorded at rest and during stress on 10 patients and 3 healthy subjects. Difference integral maps were computed for 4 intervals of integration of electrocardiographic signal (QRST, QRSU, STT and STU) and their properties and applicability as input data for inverse identification of ischemic lesions were compared. The results showed that better (more reliable) inverse solutions can be obtained from difference integral maps computed either from QRST or from STT interval of integration. The average correlation between these maps was 97%. The use of the end of U wave instead of the end of T wave for interval of integration did not improve the results.
Application of Wavelet Based Denoising for T-Wave Alternans Analysis in High Resolution ECG Maps
T-wave alternans (TWA) allows for identification of patients at an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia. Stress test, which increases heart rate in controlled manner, is used for TWA measurement. However, the TWA detection and analysis are often disturbed by muscular interference. The evaluation of wavelet based denoising methods was performed to find optimal algorithm for TWA analysis. ECG signals recorded in twelve patients with cardiac disease were analyzed. In seven of them significant T-wave alternans magnitude was detected. The application of wavelet based denoising method in the pre-processing stage increases the T-wave alternans magnitude as well as the number of BSPM signals where TWA was detected.
Health aspects of the use of radiating devices, like mobile phones, are still a public concern. Stand-alone electrocardiographic systems and those built-in, more sophisticated, medical devices have become a standard tool used in everyday medical practice. GSM mobile phones might be a potential source of electromagnetic interference (EMI) which may affect reliability of medical appliances. Risk of such event is particularly high in places remote from GSM base stations in which the signal received by GSM mobile phone is weak. In such locations an increase in power of transmitted radio signal is necessary to enhance quality of the communication. In consequence, the risk of interference of electronic devices increases because of the high level of EMI.
In the present paper the spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the interference have been examined. The influence of GSM mobile phone on multilead ECG recordings was studied. It was observed that the electrocardiographic system was vulnerable to the interference generated by the GSM mobile phone working with maximum transmit power and in DTX mode when the device was placed in a distance shorter than 7.5 cm from the ECG electrode located on the surface of the chest. Negligible EMI was encountered at any longer distance.
The polymorphism of prion protein (PrP) amino acids in codons 136 (A/V), 154 (R/H); and 171 (Q/R/H) was established. Reproductive performance of mother sheep was evaluated analysing the fertility coefficient and litter size, i.e. the number of born and reared lambs. The studies included mothers of synthetic lines BCP - 111 sheep and SCP - 104 sheep born in 2001-2007. In the examined ovine PRNP gene, the following four alleles were identified: ARR, AHQ, ARQ, and VRQ, with the absence of the ARH allele. The highest frequency was determined for the ARR (49.8%) and ARQ (45.8%) alleles. In the studied sheep population, the occurrence of seven different genotypes was reported. It was found that 71.6% of the animals had the genotypes ARR/ARR, ARR/ARQ, and ARR/AHQ, which are regarded as the most resistant to scrapie, while 7.9% of the population had ARR/VRQ-bearing genotypes (low resistance) or ARQ/VRQ ones (high susceptibility to scrapie). The analysis of the obtained results indicates that the PRNP genotype does not affect reproduction efficiency of mothers, or their offspring growth. It was concluded that flock elimination of ewes of genotypes with high and very high susceptibility to scrapie will not reduce the reproduction parameters of ewes or growth of their lambs.
The objective of the present research was to assess the instrumental and sensory textural attributes of lamb meat depending on the cold storage ageing under vacuum. The research material included two skeletal muscles, i.e. semimembranosus (SM) and rectus femoris (RF) from carcasses of Uhruska lambs. The age of animals ranged from 120 to 135 days. The ageing and muscle influenced significantly shear force and shear energy. However, significantly lower shear force and higher score of tenderness were observed on 7 vs. 2 days of ageing only for SM. The evaluated factors (ageing and muscle) affected slightly and not significantly the parameters of texture profile analysis. The muscle samples after the 7-day ageing showed higher hardness and chewiness. Significant correlation of sensory tenderness with instrumental shear and energy force and springiness was confirmed. The obtained results indicated that vacuum-packed lamb meat during cold storage for 7 days following slaughter develops the sensory attributes, especially tenderness.