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F. Zahoor, M.A. Malik, R. Anser, M. Shehzad, A. Saleem, M. Anser, M.H. Siddiqui, K. Mubeen and S.H. Raza

Abstract

Rainfed wheat is generally grown in rotation with summer fallow in medium to high rainfall zone of Pothwar plateau of Pakistan. The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the impact of shallow and deep tillage practices, with and without herbicide (glyphosate) application, on moisture conservation and subsequent wheat yields. The study also aimed to examine the feasibility of substituting intensive shallow tillage with single application of glyphosate. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates and net plot size of 14 m x 10 m, during 2007 and 2008 at two locations i.e high and medium rainfall. Wheat cultivar “GA-2002” was planted as a test crop. The data showed the superiority of conservation tillage in terms of conservation of moisture and increasing grain yields. Results also elaborated that tillage cannot be completely eliminated for profitable fallow management. However, deep ploughing with moldboard followed by single application of glyphosate proved potential option for substituting shallow tillage carried out during summer (kharif). The additional benefits under this tillage system included saving in fuel, labour and lower depreciation and maintenance costs for tillage machinery in addition to unquantifiable environmental benefits.

Open access

Ashok K. Shakya, Mehnaz Kamal, Vishal M. Balaramnavar, Sanna K. Bardaweel, Rajashri R. Naik, Anil K. Saxena and H. H. Siddiqui

Abstract

A series of N-(2-(benzoyl/4-chlorobenzoyl)-benzofuran- 3-yl)-2-(substituted)-acetamide derivatives (4a-l, 5a-l) was synthesized in good yield. All synthesized compounds were in agreement with elemental and spectral data. The anticonvulsant activity of all synthesized compounds was assessed against the maximal electroshock induced seizures (MES) model in mice. Neurotoxicity was evaluated using the rotarod method. The majority of compounds exhibited anticonvulsant activity at a dose of 30 mg kg-1 body mass during 0.5-4 h, indicating their ability to prevent seizure spread at low doses. Relative to phenytoin, [N-(2-(4-chlorobenzoyl)benzofuran-3-yl)-2-(cyclohexyl( methyl) amino)-acetamide] (5i) and [N-(2-(4-chlorobenzoyl)benzofuran-3-yl)-2-(4-methylpiperidin-1- yl)-acetamide] (5c) demonstrated comparable relative anticonvulsant potency of 0.74 and 0.72, respectively, whereas [(N-(2-(4-chlorobenzoyl)benzofuran-3-yl)-2-(4-(furan-2-carbonyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-acetamide] (5f) exhibited the lowest relative potency of 0.16. The ALD50 of tested compounds ranged from 1.604 to 1.675 mmol kg-1 body mass. The ED50 of synthesized compounds ranged from 0.055 to 0.259 mmol kg-1 (~23.4 to 127.6 mg kg-1) body mass. The pharmacophore mapping of the examined compounds on standard drugs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, ralitolin and carbamazepine) strongly suggests that these compounds may exert their anticonvulsant activity via the same established mechanism as that of known drugs.

Open access

M. Naeem, M. K. Siddiqui, J. L. G. Guirao and W. Gao

Abstract

The eccentricity εu of vertex u in a connected graph G, is the distance between u and a vertex farthermost from u. The aim of the present paper is to introduce new eccentricity based index and eccentricity based polynomial, namely modified augmented eccentric connectivity index and modified augmented eccentric connectivity polynomial respectively. As an application we compute these new indices for octagonal grid Onm and we compare the results obtained with the ones obtained by other indices like Ediz eccentric connectivity index, modified eccentric connectivity index and modified eccentric connectivity polynomial ECP(G, x).