The paper contains results of studies into the formation of oxide layers on 13CrMo4-5 (15HM) steel long-term operated at an elevated temperature. The oxide layer was studied on a surface and a cross-section at the inner and outer surface of the tube wall. The 13CrMo4-5 steel operated at the temperature of 470°C during 190,000 hours was investigated. X-ray structural examinations (XRD) were carried out, microscope observation s using an optical, scanning microscope were performed. The native material chemical composition was analysed by means of emission spark spectroscopy, while that of oxide layers on a scanning microscope (EDS). The studies on the topography of the oxide layers comprised studies on the roughness plane, which were carried out using a AFM microscope designed for 2D and 3D studies on the surface. Mechanical properties of the oxide layer – steel (substrate) were characterised on the basis of scratch test. The adhesion of oxide layers, friction force, friction coefficient, scratching depth were determined as well as the force at which the layer was delaminated.