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  • Author: M. Grądzka-Dahlke x
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M. Łępicka and M. Grądzka-Dahlke

Abstract

The development of modern invasive surgery is highly dependent on the performance of surgical instruments, understood as long-term efficiency arising from high resistance to wear and corrosion. In order to maintain sufficient reliability, surgical cutting instruments are often made of martensitic stainless steels. Nevertheless, the use of ferrous alloys in medical applications is still a concern due to their questionable corrosion and wear resistance. To extend their biocompatibility, improve stability in variable environmental conditions, improve ease of handling, and maximize their performance, diffusion layers and coatings are applied to the surface. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of TiN and diamond-like carbon (DLC) surface modification on the performance of surgical drill bits, that is, wear and corrosion resistance, measured in model and field tests. Based on the findings presented, DLC layers can be recommended as anti-wear and anti-corrosion coatings for surgical drill bits.

Open access

M. Łępicka and M. Grądzka-Dahlke

Abstract

The objective was to evaluate and assess the surface quality of fixed orthodontic appliances after intraoral usage for several months. Nine sets of orthodontic brackets by three different manufacturers and twelve archwires differing in chemical composition were analyzed in a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer for signs of corrosion. Obtained results showed that the majority of the evaluated appliances displayed no traces of corrosion. Machining or casting defects hardly ever act as the origins of corrosion processes. However, some samples displayed signs of corrosion of a galvanic and pitting nature. The authors claim, that despite the surface defects, most of the appliances were able to retain the desired corrosion resistance, although in some cases these flaws could act as the origin of corrosion processes.

Open access

M. Łępicka, M. Grądzka-Dahlke and I. Szarmach

Processes of destruction of products used in orthodontic treatment, e.g. fixed orthodontic appliances, microimplants or dental prostheses considerably limit its operational lifetime and comfort and safety of patients. The objective of the research was to evaluate and assess corrosion damage to silver-soldered stainless steel rapid palatal expansion Hyrax devices. Used in vivo for 2 or 6 months, respectively, RPE (rapid palatal expansion) devices were analyzed macroscopically and in a scanning electron microscope with an energy X-ray analyzer for signs of corrosion. The evaluated appliances showed discernible differences between the overall condition of the noble solders and the stainless steel elements. The Ag-rich solders were chiefly covered in corrosion pits, whereas stainless steel wires, molar bands and Hyrax screws presented corrosion-free surfaces. What is more, the EDS analysis showed differential element composition of the solders. According to the results, noble materials, such as Ag-rich solders, can corrode in a salivary environment when coupled with stainless steel. The selective leaching processes are observed.

Open access

Magdalena Łępicka and Małgorzata Grądzka-Dahlke

Abstract

Reliability and durability assurance poses a serious challenge for surgical instruments manufacturers. Hard working conditions, such as intermittent contact with body fluids and hard bone tissues, as well as necessity to undergo frequent sterilisation processes, induce constant research into solutions capable of ensuring high wear resistance while maintaining satisfactory imperviousness to corrosion. Plasma nitriding is marked as the modern corrosion resistance improving method suitable for surgical instruments steels. The paper presents findings from the heat treated and plasma nitrided AISI 440B (PN EN or DIN X90CrMoV18) steel corrosion resistance studies. Three conventionally heat treated (quenched with tempering in 250, 390 or 605°C) and three additionally plasma nitrided in N2:H2 reaction gas mixture (50:50, 35:65 and 20:80 ratio, respectively) specimens groups were examined. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the effect of machining - polishing and sandblasting - on investigated steel corrosion resistance. Microscopic observations and electrochemical corrosion tests were performed using a variety of analytical techniques. Results showed that, in comparison to conventional heat treatment, plasma nitriding of 440B stainless steel does not significantly affect its corrosive characteristics as far as the uniform nitride layer over the entire detail surface is obtained. The layer heterogeneity results in intensification of corrosion processes, making the material even more susceptible to corrosion than after conventional heat treatment, and contributing to severe, visible even with the unaided eye damages development.

Open access

Magdalena Łępicka and Małgorzata Grądzka-Dahlke

Abstract

Nowadays, the improvement of ferrous materials performance is a problem of high interest. One of well-known wear- and corrosion properties improving technique is plasma nitriding, in which elemental nitrogen is introduced to the surface of a metal part for subsequent diffusion into the material. As a result, a compound, “white” layer and a diffusion zone are formed at the detail’s surface. Most of the authors positively describe the effects of surface ion nitiding. On the other hand, there are also reports on adverse effects of direct current and pulsed direct current plasma nitriding on ferrous materials performance. Therefore, an attempt to provide comprehensive summary on direct current and pulsed direct current ion nitriding and its influence on ferrous materials’ mechanical and corrosion properties has been made. According to the results, some of the technique drawbacks are hard to avoid in mass production.

Open access

Magdalena Łępicka and Małgorzata Grądzka-Dahlke

Abstract

Martensitic stainless steels are used in a large number of various industrial applications, e.g. molds for plastic injections and glass moldings, automotive components, cutting tools, surgical and dental instruments. The improvement of their tribological and corrosion properties is a problem of high interest especially in medical applications, where patient safety becomes a priority. The paper covers findings from plasma nitrided AISI 440B (PN-EN or DIN X90CrMoV18) stainless steel corrosion resistance studies. Conventionally heat treated and plasma nitrided in N2:H2 reaction gas mixture (50:50, 65:35 and 80:20, respectively) in two different temperature ranges (380 or 450°C) specimens groups were examined. Microscopic observations and electrochemical corrosion tests were performed using a variety of analytical techniques. As obtained findings show, plasma nitriding of AISI 440B stainless steel, regardless of the process temperature, results in reduction of corrosion current density. Nevertheless, applying thermo-chemical process which requires exceeding temperature of about 400°C is not recommended due to increased risk of steel sensitization to intergranular and stress corrosion. According to the results, material ion nitrided in 450°C underwent leaching corrosion processes, which led to significant disproportion in chemical composition of the corroded and corrosion-free areas. The authors suggest further research into corrosion process of plasma nitrided materials and its degradation products.