This article shows example result of computer simulations supporting production process of bearing housing of aircraft engine. Verification of both deep drawing process project and tools design were carried out using finite element models implemented in eta/Dynaform 5.8.1 system and LS-DYNA solver. Wrinkling and fracture of the material were the main phenomena subjected to the investigation on the way of numerical analysis. A number of computer simulations were carried out in aim to analyze the deformation and strain distribution in the final product, as well as to eliminate the mentioned defects. In addition the comparison of results of both industrial tests and computer simulation was done.
D. Woźniak, M. Głowacki, M. Hojny and T. Pieja
T. Dębiński, M. Głowacki, M. Hojny, A. Gumuła and D. Woźniak
The paper presents web base system for an application of parallel object-oriented programming technique in modelling of rolling process of steel plates with semi-solid zone. It also throws light on the problem of semi-solid steels yield stress relationship, one of the main input data of the simulation, and on application of inverse solution, the only possible method of development of the stress-strain curves at extremely high temperatures. Due to limitations of available computer resources a very accurate computation can sometimes be impossible or the time performance can be a barrier for practical application of complex sequential models. Taking advantage of parallel computing the authors have developed an algorithm allowing for fast computation using multiple processors, which is the main subject of the presented paper.
D. Jędrzejczyk, M. Hojny and M. Głowacki
The paper presents the results of the application simulating the rolling process of steel in terms of coexistence of liquid and solid phases. The created mathematical models can be the basis for creation of systems that simulate the final phase of the continuous casting process relying on using a roller burnishing machine for continuous casting of steel. For a complete description of the performance of the material during deformation in these conditions, the constructed mathematical model is a fully three-dimensional model and consists of three parts: thermal, mechanical, and density variation submodels. The thermal model allows the prediction of temperature changes during plastic deformation of solidifying material. The mechanical model determines the kinetics of plastic continuum flow in the solid and semi-solid states, and the resulting deformation field. The temperature of the process forces supplementing the description of the performance of the material with a density variation model that allows the prediction of changes in the density of the material during the final phase of solidification with simultaneous plastic deformation. For the purpose built model, experimental studies were performed using a physical simulator Gleeble 3800®. They allowed the determination of the necessary physical properties of the metal within the temperature of change state. In addition to presenting the developed models the work also includes the description of the author’s application that uses the above mathematical models. The application was written in the fully object-oriented language C++ and is based on the finite element method. The developed application beside the module data input, also consist of a module of three-dimensional visualization of the calculations results. Thanks to it, the analysis of the distribution of the particular rolling parameters in any cross-section of the rolled strip will be possible. The paper presents the results of the authors’ research in the area of the advanced computer simulation.
D. Woźniak, M. Hojny, T. Gądek and M. Głowacki
The paper deals with the problem of forming of axisymmetric element. Two-stages process was taken into consideration: deep drawing of metal blank using hydraulic press and the method of elongating flow forming. The contribution presents results of numerical and experimental analyzes. Numerical simulations of both the processes were realized in Kraków at AGH University. Numerical verification of both processes was carried out using finite element models implemented with the help of commercial analysis system on basis of conducted in Poznań experimental shaping tests of Hastelloy C-276 alloy. The tests were aimed to find opportunities and conditions of plastic deformation of the material. This article summarizes example results of both numerical and experimental forming of products made of hard-to-deform material.
K. Regulski, J. Jakubski, A. Opaliński, M. Brzeziński and M. Głowacki
The subject of the study is the improvement of the quality of moulding sand preparation. An exploration research performed on the data concerning moulding sand quality parameters was described. The aim of the research was to find relationships between various factors determining the properties of moulding sands and, based on the results obtained, build models predicting the sand moisture content with the induction of classification and regression trees. A two-match prediction approach was demonstrated and its effectiveness in evaluating the moulding sand moisture content was discussed. The knowledge in the form of rules acquired in this way can be used in the creation of knowledge bases for systems supporting decisions in the diagnostics of the moulding sand rebonding process. Formalized knowledge also facilitates further processing of the measurement data.
M. Hojny, D. Woźniak, M. Głowacki, K. Żaba, M. Nowosielski and M. Kwiatkowski
The paper presents example results of numerical and photogrammetric analysis leading to identify the causes of cracking and wrinkling during bathtub W1200 production. The verification of tools for the stamping of bathtub W1200 was performed using finite element method and photogrammetric system ATOS Triple Scan. A series of industrial tests was conducted to identify the model parameters. The major and minor strain distributions obtained from the finite element simulations were used in conjunction with the forming limit diagram to predict the onset of fracture. In addition, the effects of blank holder pressure and friction on the occurrence of fracture and wrinkling were investigated.
I. Olejarczyk-Wożeńska, H. Adrian, B. Mrzygłód and M. Głowacki
A mathematical model of austenite - bainite transformation in austempered ductile cast iron has been presented. The model is based on a model developed by Bhadeshia [1, 2] for modelling the bainitic transformation in high-silicon steels with inhibited carbide precipitation. A computer program has been developed that calculates the incubation time, the transformation time at a preset temperature, the TTT diagram and carbon content in unreacted austenite as a function of temperature. Additionally, the program has been provided with a module calculating the free energy of austenite and ferrite as well as the maximum driving force of transformation. Model validation was based on the experimental research and literature data. Experimental studies included the determination of austenite grain size, plotting the TTT diagram and analysis of the effect of heat treatment parameters on the microstructure of ductile iron. The obtained results show a relatively good compatibility between the theoretical calculations and experimental studies. Using the developed program it was possible to examine the effect of austenite grain size on the rate of transformation.
B. Mrzygłód, A. Kowalski, I. Olejarczyk-Wożenska, T. Giętka and M. Głowacki
The results of examinations of microstructure and an analysis of its impact on selected mechanical properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI) were presented in the paper. The ADI was produced from the ductile iron containing 1.56% Ni only alloying addition. The effect of the austempering time and temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the examined cast iron was considered. Constant conditions of austenitizing were assumed and six variants of the austempering treatment were adopted. The studyof mechanical properties included a static tensile test, Charpy impact strength test and Brinellhardness measurement.
This work complements the knowledge about alloying additions effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of ADI and focuses on the impact of a single alloying element (Ni).
Grzegorz Leniec, Sławomir M. Kaczmarek, Marek Berkowski, Michał Głowacki, Tomasz Skibiński and Bohdan Bojanowski
Single crystals of ErVO4 were grown by the Czochralski method under ambient pressure in a nitrogen atmosphere. Obtained crystals were transparent with strong pink coloring. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra were recorded as a function of the applied magnetic field. Temperature and angular dependences of the EPR spectra of the samples in the 3–300 K temperature range were analyzed applying both Lorentzian––Gauss approximation for diluted medium and Dyson for dense magnetic medium. EPR-NMR program was done to find local symmetry and spin Hamiltonian parameters of erbium ions.
B. Mrzygłód, A. Kowalski, I. Olejarczyk-Wożenska, H. Adrian, M. Głowacki and A. Opaliński
Metallographic examinations and mechanical tests were carried out on the ductile iron with additions of Ni, Cu and Mo in as-cast state and after austempering. TTT and CCT diagrams were plotted. The heat treatment was performed in six different variants. Studies included qualitative assessment of the microstructure and testing of mechanical properties such as R0,2, Rm, A, Z, HRC, KC. An analysis of the obtained results was also presented.