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M. Šuleková, M. Smrčová, A. Hudák, M. Heželová and M. Fedorová

Abstract

Food dyes are largely used in the process of manufacturing pharmaceutical products. The aim of such a procedure is not only to increase the attractiveness of products, but also to help patients distinguish between pharmaceuticals. Various dyes, especially organic colouring agents, may in some cases have a negative impact on the human body. They are incorporated into pharmaceutical products including tablets, hard gelatine capsules or soft gelatine capsules, lozenges, syrups, etc. This article provides an overview of the most widely used colouring agents in pharmaceuticals, their characteristics and the EU legislation which regulates their use.

Open access

M. Fedorová, R. Nemcová, D. Mudroňová, E. Styková, M. Brudňáková and K. Reiffová

Abstract

This study investigated a possible relationship between exopolysaccharides (EPS) production and the resistance to bile salts and low pH in intestinal strains of Lactobacillus reuteri. The strains displayed a mucoid phenotype, when grown in the presence of 10 % sucrose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed strands of exopolysaccharide linking neighbouring cells. The strains (except L. reuteri B1/1) produced EPS in the range from 15.80 to 650.70 mg.l−1. The strains were tested for tolerance to bile salts (0.15; 0.3 %) and low pH (1.5—2.0—2.5—3.0). The survival rate, after the treatment with artificial gastric and intestinal juices, was determined by flow cytometric analysis. The strains of L. reuteri that produced 121—650 mg.l−1 of EPS showed a significantly higher tolerance (P < 0.001) to the gastric juice at pH 3 and 2.5, throughout the entire exposure time, in comparison to the strains that produced less than 20 mg.l−1 of EPS. L. reuteri L26, with the highest production of EPS, exhibited the highest survival rate (60 %) at pH 2 after the 120 minutes of in-cubation and was able to tolerate pH 1.5 for 30 minutes. Higher production of EPS significantly (P < 0.001) increased the strains’ tolerance against the intestinal juice in the presence of 0.15 and 0.3 % bile salts and was time dependent. L. reuteri L26 showed the highest tolerance (P < 0.001) against 0.3 % bile salts. This investigation revealed a positive correlation between the EPS production and the resistance of intestinal L. reuteri to the stress conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

Open access

Marian Fedor, R. Simonova, J. Fedorova, I. Skornova, L. Duraj, M. Samos, J. Stasko, F. Kovar, M. Mokan and P. Kubisz

Abstract

Dual antiplatelet treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin represents standard regimen in prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). One of the greatest pitfalls of clopidogrel treatment is large inter-individual variability in response. Large amount of patients does not respond adequately and therefore are not „protected“ even in spite of receiving the therapy. Poor responders are exposed to three-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis and cardiac death.

Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet prodrug, whose active metabolite inhibits platelet function by irreversible binding to the (adenosine diphosphate) platelet receptor P2Y12. Receptor P2Y12 plays primal role in ADP-mediated platelet activation, and also in mechanism of action of ADP inhibitors such as clopidogrel, prasugrel etc. Reasons stated above, raised the necessity for implementing reliable laboratory test in order to identify the unprotected patients. In an ideal scenario, such test would serve to adjust the dose and guide the individual tailored treatment.

Vasodilator Stimulated Phosphoprotein (VASP) is an intracellular platelet protein which is non phosphorylated at basal state. Since its relation in cascade with P2Y12 receptor, VASP phosphorylation corerlates with inhibition of P2Y12 which is the receptor of prime importance in ADP mediated activation of platelets and as is primary target of ADP inhibitors action. Outcome of the assay is represented as the value of platelet reactivity index (PRI), where PRI values above 50% are considered inadequate response to treatment and signal exposure to increased risk of myocardial infarction, post-PCI stent thrombosis and cardiac death. VASP-P flow cytometric assay is emerging into the spotlight as the promising method, mostly for its specificity for ADP inhibitors, better outlook for standardising results and lesser sample manipulation compared to multiple electrode aggregometry.