Pyogenic liver abscess is an uncommon but important and potentially life-threatening disease that occurs whenever there is failure of clearance of an infection in the liver. Work presents a rare case of pyogenic liver abscess with confirmed bacterial aetiology of Staphylococcus aureus, subsequently confirmed Echinococcus multilocularis and suspected Mycobacterium tuberculosis liver infection in 6 years old child. Moreover, several other parasitic diseases were recorded. According to clinical presentation of diseases, it could be supposed that liver impairment caused by alveolar echinococcosis and potentially also by M. tuberculosis could be the predisposition site for the capture of Staphylococcus aureus in altered liver tissues during its haematogenous spreading, and thus contributed to the development and subsequent clinical presentation of pyogenic liver abscess. The presence of three different aetiological agents complicated the diagnostic process as well as the therapy of the patient and made her prognosis uncertain. Proper diagnosis of multiloculated liver abscesses, with echinococcosis and hepatic tuberculosis considered in the differential diagnosis, is therefore crucial to administration of early and appropriate treatment.
Human echinococcosis, one of the most serious of parasitic zoonoses, is caused by the larval stages of taeniid cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. The study aimed to assess the reliability of the detection of specific antibodies to E. multilocularis and E. granulosus s.l. in human sera and to compare their diagnostic potential for their utilization in the practice. In the study, the somatic antigen of E. multilocularis (AgEm), antigen B (AgB), and the hydatid fluid antigen of E. granulosus and two commercial ELISA kits – Echinococcus granulosus (Bordier Affinity Products, Crissier, Switzerland) and NovaLisaTMEchinococcus IgG (NovaTec Immunodiagnostica, Germany) – were compared. Sera of patients with alveolar and cystic echinococcosis, and with different parasitic/other infections were used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and cross-reactivity of in-house and commercial ELISA methods. AgEm presented the highest values regarding the diagnostic indicators, showing 100 % specificity and 90.0 % sensitivity. The tests for serological diagnostics of cystic echinococcosis were less sensitive and specific. The Echinococcus granulosus kit had 83.8 % specificity and 88.2 % sensitivity, while AgB and AgHF showed 85.0 % and 86.3 % specificity, and 76.5 % and 100 % sensitivity, respectively. NovaLisaTMEchinococcus IgG proved to have 95.7 % specificity and 77.8 % sensitivity. The results point out that the combination of different serological tests and approaches in accordance with clinical and imaging findings is still essential to prove the correct diagnosis in suspected patients.