Syrian oregano (Origanum syriacum L., Lamiaceae) is a very popular culinary herb that has been used through the ages in traditional medicine mainly in Lebanon and the Arab world. The subject of this study was the microscopic analysis of the herbal drug Origani syriaci folium, as well as the chemical analysis of its essential oil components. Plant materials originated from Arabsalim - South Lebanon and were collected in 2010. The presence of very dense clusters of multicellular covering trichomes (510 μm × 18.47 μm) and peltate secretory glands (∅ 87.95 μm) with eight cells were observed. The essential oil of Origani syriaci folium was isolated and quantified using hydrodistillation according to SPhC 1997. The content of essential oil was 95 ml/1000 g, i.e. 9.5% (V/m). The volatile constituents of Origani syriaci folium were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated using SPME GC/MS. The two dominant constituents identified in Syrian oregano leaves were carvacrol (78.4%) and thymol (17.9%).
Six parents, i.e. Gemmeiza 9, Sids 12, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sids 1 and Sham 4, were used and evaluated with corresponding 15 F2 crosses. The parents in each cross were significantly different for most of these characters, revealing the different genetic background of the parents involved. The phenotypic variances in the F2 crosses were differed significantly from the environmental variances in the corresponding parents in most cases. The parents Gemmeiza 9, Sids 12, Misr 1, Misr 2 were resistant for leaf rust and Gemmeiza 9, Sids 12 and Sids 1 were resistant to stem rust. Among the crosses, three crosses, i.e. Misr 2 x Sids 1, Misr 1 x Sids 1 and Gemmeiza 9 x Sids 1 gave the highest grain yield. The means of F2 hybrids were higher than the means of the parents for most studied characters. The ranges of the F2 values went out the ranges of the two parents in most cases, exhibiting transgressive segregation. Most characters showed moderate to high values of broad sense heritabilities. The studied plants in the F2 ‘s crosses segregated and gave ratios fitted the ratios 9:7, 9:7, 3:1, 1:3, 13:3 and 3:13 for leaf rust and 9:7, 7: 9, 3:1, 1:3, 3:13 and 1:15 for stem rust with insignificant χ2 values, indicating that the resistant parents for leaf and stem rusts had one or two genes and were complimentary dominance, recessive or independent in their expressions. Based on the resistance to leaf and stem rusts, suitable plant height (90-110 cm) and grain yield higher than the highest parent, 8-17 plants were selected from seven crosses.
Ion implantation has a potential to modify the surface properties and to produce thin conductive layers in insulating polymers. For this purpose, poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39) was implanted by 400 keV Au+ ions with ion fluences ranging from 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The chemical, morphological and optical properties of implanted CR-39 were analyzed using Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of implanted samples was determined through four-point probe technique. Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of carbonaceous structures in the implanted layer of CR-39. From FT-IR spectroscopy analysis, changes in functional groups of CR-39 after ion implantation were observed. AFM studies revealed that morphology and surface roughness of implanted samples depend on the fluence of Au ions. The optical band gap of implanted samples decreased from 3.15 eV (for pristine) to 1.05 eV (for sample implanted at 5 × 1015 ions/cm2). The electrical conductivity was observed to increase with the ion fluence. It is suggested that due to an increase in ion fluence, the carbonaceous structures formed in the implanted region are responsible for the increase in electrical conductivity.