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M. Dośpiał, M. Nabiałek and K. Błoch

Abstract

The fabrication method and magnetic properties of Sm12.5Co66.5Fe8Cu11Si2 alloy are presented in this article. The samples were produced by rapid quenching of the liquid alloy onto a rotating, copper wheel (the so-called ‘melt-spinning’ method) and they had a thin ribbon shape. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by measurements of diffraction patterns for powdered samples, in order to obtain data from the entire volume of the sample. It was found, that samples were composed of different amounts of Sm2Co17, SmCo5 and SmCo7 phases, depending on the linear velocity of the copper wheel used during the fabrication process. The magnetic measurements were performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (LakeShore VSM) working with an external magnetic field of up to 2 T. It was found that the obtained ribbons displayed relatively good hard magnetic properties, such as remanence μ 0MR, and high resistance to demagnetization fields JHC.

Open access

K. Błoch, M. Nabiałek, M. Dośpiał and S. Garus

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present the results of crystallization studies for the bulk amorphous (Fe0.61Co0.10Zr0.025Hf0.025 Ti0.02W0.02B0.20)98Y2, Fe61Co10TixY6B20, Fe61Co10Ti2Y7B20 alloys. The crystallization of the alloys was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The amorphicity of the investigated alloys in the as-quenched state was testified using Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, X-ray diffractometry was applied to structure investigations of partially crystallized samples. The crystallization process in the investigated alloys occurs in one or two stages. Two peaks in the DSC curves can be overlapped or well separated indicating the complex crystallization processes. From X-ray diffraction we have stated that in both types of devitrification the crystalline phase can be ascribed to the α-FeCo. In the first stage the crystalline grains seem to grow from the nuclei frozen in the samples during the rapid quenching, whereas in the second one both the growth of the existed grains and creation of new ones during annealing may occur.

Open access

A. Ceglarek, D. Płusa, P. Pawlik and M. Dośpiał

Influence of Heat Treatment on Magnetic Properties of Nanocrystalline Nd9Fe84Zr1B6 Ribbons Received by Rapid Solidification Method

The effect of the annealing on the phase composition and magnetic properties of nanocomposite melt-spun Nd9Fe84Zr1B6 ribbons has been investigated. From the X-ray diffraction studies confirmed be thermomagnetic curves measurements results that the microstructure of the material investigated is composed of a mixture of magnetically hard Nd2Fe14B and soft α-Fe, Fe3B nanosized grains. The small amount of undesirable Nd2Fe23B3 metastable phase has been found which do not decompose at the highest annealing temperature. The hysteresis loop measurements certify that the ribbon annealed at 863K show the best coupling between the hard and soft magnetic phases and thus the highest coercivity of 0.38T. The grain sizes increase with increasing annealing temperature causing the coercivity to be decrease.

Open access

M. Dośpiał, M. Nabiałek, M. Szota and J. Gondro

Abstract

The magnetization reversal processes of bulk Fe64Co5Nd6Y6B19 alloy in the as-quenched state have been investigated. From the analysis of the initial magnetization curve and differential susceptibility versus an internal magnetic field it was deduced, that the main mechanism of magnetization reversal process is the pinning of domain walls at the grain’s boundaries of the Nd2Fe14B phase. Basing on the dependence of the reversible magnetization component as a function of magnetic field it was found that reversible rotation of a magnetic moment vector and motion of domain walls in multi-domain grains result in high initial values of the reversible component. The presence of at least two maxima on differential susceptibility of irreversible magnetization component in function of magnetic field imply existence of few pinning sites of domain walls in Fe64Co5Nd6Y6B19 alloy. The dominant interactions between particles have been determined on the basis of the Wohlfarth dependence. Such a behavior of Wohlfarth’s plot implies that the dominant interaction between grains becomes short range exchange interactions.

Open access

M. Nabiałek, P. Pietrusiewicz, M. Szota, M. Dośpiał, J. Jędryka, K. Szota and S. Lesz

Evaluation of the Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Fe73Me5Y3B19 (Where Me = Ti or Nb) Amorphous Alloys

The results of microstructure and magnetic properties studies of the amorphous Fe73Me5Y3B19 (where Me = Ti or Nb) alloys are presented The samples of the investigated alloys were produced in the form of ribbons with thickness of approximately 30 μm by unidirectional cooling of the liquid material on a rotating copper wheel. Both investigated alloys, in the as-quenched state, were fully amorphous which was verified using a ‘Bruker’ X-ray diffractometer. Static hysteresis loops, measured using ‘LakeShore’ vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), were typical as for soft magnetic ferromagnets. The Fe73Nb5Y3B19 and Fe73Ti5Y3B19 alloys were characterized by relatively high values of saturation of the magnetization (1.25 T and 1.26 T, respectively) and low coercivity field (16 A/m and 47 A/m, respectively). The core losses obtained for the investigated alloys were significantly lower than for commercially used FeSi transformer steels. Both alloys also exhibited excellent time and temperature stability of the magnetic properties (within the investigated temperature range), as confirmed by measurements of magnetic susceptibility and its disaccommodation.

Open access

P. Pietrusiewicz, M. Nabiałek, M. Szota, M. Dośpiał, K. Błoch, A. Bukowska and K. Gruszka

Abstract

In this paper the results of the structural and magnetic investigation of Fe61Co10Y8Zr1B20 alloy after solidification and isothermal annealing was presented. The isothermical annealing was carried out at 700 K for 1 h and 770 K for 3.5 h. For the structural investigation was performed by X-ray diffractometer equipped with a copper lamp. The results of (XRD) measurements showed the material in the state after the solidification and heat treatment is amorphous. Static hysteresis loops and initial magnetization curve was measured using vibrating magnetometer (VSM). The quality and quantity of structural defects in the sample after heat treatment was determined by indirect method using analyze the initial magnetization curve in accordance with the theory of Kronmüllera. These studies have shown that the annealing process has big influence to change significantly quantity of defects in amorphous structure as a result, there are changes of magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization and field μ0Ms coercivity Hc.

Open access

P. Pietrusiewicz, M. Nabiałek, M. Szota, M. Dośpiał, K. Błoch, J. Gondro and K. Gruszka

Abstract

The influence of isothermal annealing on the magnetisation process in strong magnetic fields of the amorphous Fe61Co10Y8Ni1B20 alloy ribbons was investigated. Samples in the form of ribbons were produced by rapid quenching of liquid alloy on a rotating copper wheel. In order to study the relaxation process, the investigated Fe61Co10Y8Ni1B20 samples were subjected to annealing below the crystallisation temperature at 700 K for 1 h and then at 770 K for 3.5 h. The structure of the samples was examined by X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD). It was found, that all of measured samples in the as-cast state and after thermal treatment, were amorphous. On the basis of virgin magnetisation curve analysis, the type, size and density of structural defects occurring in the investigated samples were determined. It was found that after the first stage of annealing, decay of linear defects (pseudo-dislocation dipoles) into smaller, more thermodynamically stable, point defects occurs. The presence of point like defects was also confirmed after the second stage of annealing.

Open access

M. Nabiałek, A. Dobrzanska-Danikiewicz, S. Lesz, P. Pietrusiewicz, M. Szota and M. Dospiał

Abstract

This paper presents the results of microstructure and magnetic properties analysis for bulk amorphous samples of Fe36Co36B19Si5Nb4 alloy in the form of rods of 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm diameters in the as-cast state, produced using the method of injecting liquid alloy into cooled copper mold. The main purpose of the research was to examine the effect of solidification speed of the liquid material into amorphous state on the shape of initial magnetization curve as well as to determine the type and size of structural defects occurring in the volume of the material. In order to achieve these objectives, the magnetization measurements were carried out, which according to H. Kronmüller’s theory on magnetization behavior near the area called reaching the ferromagnetic saturation, allow to determine the type, size, and surface density of structural defects occurring in the volume of the sample. The analysis of reduced magnetization curves indicates that solidification speed of the liquid alloy into the amorphous state is the main determining factor for the shape of initial magnetization curve and for the type and size of structural defects formed in the sample, which affects such magnetic parameters as: coercive field (HC) or saturation magnetization (MS).

Open access

M. Gucwa, J. Winczek, R. Bęczkowski and M. Dośpiał

Abstract

The welding technologies are widely used for design of protection layer against wear and corrosion. Hardfacing, which is destined for obtaining coatings with high hardness, takes special place in these technologies. One of the most effective way of hardfacing is using self shielded flux cored arc welding (FCAW-S). Chemical composition obtained in flux cored wire is much more rich in comparison to this obtained in solid wire. The filling in flux cored wires can be enriched for example with the mixture of hard particles or phases with specified ratio, which is not possible for solid wires. This is the reason why flux cored wires give various possibilities of application of this kind of filler material for improving surface in mining industry, processing of minerals, energetic etc. In the present paper the high chromium and niobium flux cored wire was used for hardfacing process with similar heat input. The work presents studies of microstructures of obtained coatings and hardness and geometric properties of them. The structural studies were made with using optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction that allowed for identification of carbides and other phases obtained in the structures of deposited materials. Investigated samples exhibit differences in coating structures made with the same heat input 4,08 kJ/mm. There are differences in size, shape and distribution of primary and eutectic carbides in structure. These differences cause significant changes in hardness of investigated coatings.

Open access

D. Płusa, M. Dośpial, D. Derewnicka-Krawczyńska, P. Wieczorek and U. Kotlarczyk

The Domain Structure of Die-Upset Anisotropic Magnet Based On Nd-(Fe, Co)-B Alloy

The measurements of the recoil curves for the die-upset Nd-(Fe, Co)-B based magnets from different points on the magnetization and demagnetization curves have been carried out by means of the LakeShore vibrating sample magnetometer in an applied magnetic fields up to 2 T. From the recoil curves the so-called Wohlfarth's remanence relationship has been derived. From this it was deduced that the magnetic interaction existing between the magnet grains has a dipolar nature. The existence of the magnetic interaction has been confirmed by magnetic domain observations by using the magnetic force microscopy (MFM). In the area of interaction domains there is the fine scale magnetic contrast resulting from the dipolar interaction between neighboring grains.