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  • Author: M. Cr. Stan x
  • Clinical Medicine, other x
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Characteristics of some anatomical landmarks on the anterior face of the maxilla


The canine bossa (not listed in TA) was clearly visible in 80% of cases, less prominent in 12% of cases or even absent in 8% of cases. The most commonly is oval in shape with the long axis oriented vertically or slightly oblique infero-medially. In 60% of cases the two fossae showed approximately equal sizes. For the rest of the 40% of the cases, the left one was larger (24 cases) than the right one. In 12% of cases we found a dehiscent anterior wall of the canine fossa for more than half of its height. The myrtiform fossa (also not mentioned in the TA) was oval, with the long axis oriented vertically and with same dimensions bilaterally in 60% of cases. In 2/3 of cases was evident (deeper) on the right. In 28% of cases we found it rounded, more frequently also on the right and in 12% of cases we found it as having an irregular shape. In about 10% of cases have it was almost flat. The canine fossa (Fossa canina) has various shapes, more frequently rounded with an average diameter of 0.8-0.9 cm. In 30% of cases was oval, with vertical long axis of 1 cm in and 0.7 cm width. The cases of rounded canine fossa, well circumscribed and deeper, were more prevalent on the left. The infraorbital foramen (Foramen infraorbitale) was circular in equal proportions (in half of the cases), with a diameter of 2.5-5 mm, or oval, with 3-5 mm vertical axis and 1.5-3 mm horizontal axis. Note the difference in shape in the same skull: circular on the left and oval on the right (most frequent case) or vice versa. The distance from the infraorbital border is variable, being lower on the left in 65% of cases. Compared to the piriform aperture, the infraorbital foramen is located at 0.9 to 1.7 cm on the right and at 1.2-1.7 cm on the left. We encountered five cases with double infraorbital foramen. The intermaxillary suture is vertical in only 35% of cases. In other cases it is deviated to the left in 40% of cases, and in 25% of the cases is oriented to the right. The degree of inclination is variable, making with the horizontal an angle between 95 to 1100. The alveolar process (Procesus alveolaris) is wider posteriorly. There is a difference in width right-to-left, being wider on the right side in 40% of cases (6-13 mm), are the same size on both sides in 30% of cases, the other 30% of cases being thicker on the left.

The zygomatic process (Procesus zygomaticus) may be sharp or, more frequently, with a serrated or rounded edge and with a small tubercle in almost 50% of cases

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Morphological peculiarities of the hard palate


Our results were obtained on a total of 48 adult human skulls, assessing the morphological characteristics of the hard palate, measuring the palatine processes and analyzing the sutures (intermaxillary, interpalatine and maxillo-palatine); were determined the size, shape and features of the palatine foramens and incisive fossa. For the incisive fossa we describe three shapes: oval, round and rhombic. In 2 cases the incisive fossa was absent, being replaced by three round holes arranged in a triangle. The palatine process has a very irregular inferior face, being smoother only in its posterior quarter. Each palatine process of maxilla has a trapezoidal shape with the lesser base oriented anteriorly. The median palatine suture starts at the middle of the posterior circumference of the incisive fossa and ends, more often, on the line between second and third molars. The suture may be regular, located on the midline, so the two palatine processes of the maxilla are symmetrical and of equal size. The horizontal palatine lamina is thin, smooth and glossy, with very few vascular openings on its surface, mostly on its sides. The transverse palatine suture is most commonly curved posteriorly, with irregular contour and with an oblique posterior-lateral traject; it ends at the large palatine foramen. The large palatine foramens are voluminous, sometimes larger than the incisor one. The most common shape is oval and less frequently are rounded. The lesser palatine foramens are variable in number from 1 to 5; commonly are two on each side.

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