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Open access

M. Karaś, M. Nowak, M. Opyrchał, M. Bigaj and A. Najder

Abstract

In this study, the effect of zinc interlayer on the adhesion of nickel coatings reinforced with micrometric Al2O3 particles was examined. Nickel coating was applied by electroplating on EN AW - 5754 aluminium alloy using Watts bath at a concentration of 150 g/l of nickel sulphate with the addition of 50 g/l of Al2O3. The influence of zinc intermediate coating deposited in single, double and triple layers on the adhesion of nickel coating to aluminium substrate was also studied. The adhesion was measured by the thermal shock technique in accordance with PN-EN ISO 2819. The microhardness of nickel coating before and after heat treatment was additionally tested.

It was observed that the number of zinc interlayers applied does not significantly affect the adhesion of nickel which is determined by thermal shock. No defect that occurs after the test, such as delamination, blistering or peeling of the coating was registered. Microhardness of the nickel coatings depends on the heat treatment and the amount of zinc in the interlayer. For both single and double zinc interlayer, the microhardness of the nickel coating containing Al2O3 particles increased after heat treatment, but decreased when a triple zinc interlayer was applied.

Open access

W. Szymański, M. Bigaj, M. Gawlik, M. Mitka and M. Szymanek

Abstract

One of the methods to produce aluminium alloys of an uncommon composition and structure is by the combined process of casting with rapid solidification and the following plastic forming.

When modern advanced methods of rapid cooling of the melt are used, the alloy structure solidifies as a powder in the atomiser or as ribbons when cast onto a rapidly rotating copper wheel. If optimum conditions for the process of casting and rapid consolidation are satisfied, it is possible to control some structure parameters like the size of the particles, the size of the precipitates, etc. Additionally, the production of aluminium alloys by rapid solidification allows introducing the alloying constituents that are incompatible with the state of equilibrium. The consolidation of material made by rapid solidification is achieved in one of the numerous variations of the plastic forming processes, among which the most commonly used are the direct extrusion and continuous rotary extrusion (CRE).

This paper presents the results of the consolidation in the process of continuous rotary extrusion (CRE) of selected aluminum alloys with an unusually high content of alloying elements cast in the process of rapid solidification by melt spinning and crushed in a high-speed cutting mill to as ”chips”.

Open access

A. Kozik, M. Nowak, M. Gawlik, M. Bigaj and M. Karaś

In this study, Ni, Ni-SiC and Ni-Al2O3 coatings were electroplated on the 2xxx series aluminium alloy. The following parameters of the electroplating process were applied: current density - 4A/dm2, time - 60 minutes, and temperature - 60°C. Hard particles of submicrometric size were used. The results of the research showing the effect of the addition of hard particles (introduced into the nickel bath as a dispersed phase) on the properties of coatings, including the effect of the type (SiC or Al2O3) and content (0, 25, 50 g / l) of these particles, were discussed. Based on extensive investigations, it was found that the type of ceramic particles significantly affects the structure of produced coatings. The dispersed particles incorporated into the nickel coatings improve their abrasion resistance. Improving of the corrosion properties were observed only in the case of coatings containing silicon carbide particles.

Open access

A. Najder, M. Nowak, M. Bigaj, J. Zelechowski, M. Opyrchał and M. Karas

Abstract

In this study, Ni-SiC composite coatings were electroplated on the 5xxx series aluminium alloy substrate. The effect of the quantity (25g/l i 50g/l) and the size (3μm, 0,41μm and 50nm) of SiC particles introduced into the bath as a dispersed phase on properties of the coatings was tested. The influence of these parameters on thickness, microhardness, surface structure, abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance of nickel composite coatings was determined.

Open access

M. Bigaj, S. Boczkal, J. Żelechowski, M. Gawlik and M. Mitka

The results of studies carried out on the heat treated AZ61 magnesium alloy extruded by two methods, i.e. direct extrusion and continuous rotary extrusion, were presented. As part of the work, parameters of the T6 heat treatment were proposed and aging curves were plotted. The solution heat treatment process was accompanied by the grain growth. During artificial aging, due to the decomposition of solid solution, the β-Mg17Al12 phase was precipitated from the supersaturated α solution. It precipitated in a coagulated form at the grain boundaries and in the form of fine-dispersed plates arranged in a preferred direction relative to the grain orientation. Rods obtained by continuous rotary extrusion, unlike those made by the direct process, exhibited a low degree of texturing and lack of anisotropic properties.

Open access

M. Karaś, M. Bigaj, A. Najder and M. Nowak

The effect of process parameters of conversion coatings on the corrosion resistance was investigated. To produce anodic coatings, the solutions of H2SO4 of 0.5 and 1 M concentrations and current densities of 0.5 and 1 A/dm2 were applied. The coatings were deposited by galvanostatic technique on titanium Grade 1. The result of the study was comparison of the corrosion resistance of coatings produced under varying parameters such as: the anodic current density, the electrolyte concentration, and the speed of reaching the preset voltage. Corrosion tests performed by potentiodynamic polarization test have shown that even nanometric anodic films of amorphous structure improve the corrosion resistance of titanium alloy. The lowest corrosion current and the corrosion potential of the most cathodic nature were observed in the sample with anodic coating produced at J = 1 A/dm2 in a 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte concentration.

Open access

M. Mitka, M. Gawlik, M. Bigaj and W. Szymański

Continuous rotary extrusion (CRE) is the more and more frequently used variation of the plastic working process. Magnesium alloys, due to its properties are becoming increasingly popular as a substitute for aluminium alloys and steel, particularly in the aerospace and transportation industries. The main aim of this study was to optimize the parameters of the CRE process for selected commercial magnesium alloys such as AZ81 and AZ91. Extruded in CRE process rods were subjected to visual observations, microstructure examination, and testing of mechanical properties. Basing on the CRE test results and studies, parameters enabling successful execution of the process were specified. It was found that the greatest impact on the extrusion process has the die temperature, and it can be controlled mainly by adjustment of other CRE parameters (eg. process speed).

Open access

M. Szymanek, B. Augustyn, D. Kapinos, J. Żelechowski and M. Bigaj

The aim of the studies described in this article was to present the effect of rare earth elements on aluminium alloys produced by an unconventional casting technique. The article gives characteristics of the thin strip of Al-Si-RE alloy produced by Rapid Solidification (RS). The effect of rare earth elements on structure refinement, i.e. on the size of near-eutectic crystallites in an aluminium-silicon alloy, was discussed. To determine the size of crystallites, the Scherrer X-ray diffraction method was used. The results presented capture relationships showing the effect of variable casting parameters and chemical composition on microstructure of the examined alloys. Rapid Solidification applied to Al-Si alloys with the addition of mischmetal (Ce, La, Ne, Pr) refines their structure.

Open access

M. Nowak, A. Najder, M. Opyrchał, S. Boczkal, J. Żelechowski, M. Bigaj and M. Gawlik

The paper presents a study on corrosion behaviour and tribological properties of nickel composite coatings deposited by electrochemical method on aluminium alloy from 2xxx series (AlCu4MgSi). The nickel composite coatings were produced in a Watts bath of the following chemical composition: NiSO4·7H2O 150 g/l, NiCl2·6H2O 30 g/l, H3BO3 30 g/l with the addition of saccharin in an amount of 2 g/l. As hard ceramic dispersed particles embedded in the coating, alumina (Al2O3) was used in an amount of 12,5; 25; 50 and 75 g/l. Coatings were produced using cathodic current density of 6 A/dm2, bath temperature of 60°C, pH 4, and the time 60 minutes. The electroplating bath was stirred with a mechanical stirrer (350 rpm).

The results obtained were compared with a nickel coating deposited without the ceramic particles. It was found that the presence of Al2O3 increases the wear resistance of composite coatings, but does not significantly improve the corrosion properties.

Open access

Izabela M. Bigaj, Renata Brzozowska, Michał Łopata, Grzegorz Wiśniewski, Julita A. Dunalska, Daniel Szymański and Rafał A. Zieliński

Abstract

Coagulation behaviour of polyaluminium chloride (PACl) was comparatively investigated in terms of the removal of turbidity and colour with surface water. The growth of flocs was also compared. The results show that the decrease in saturation and values of dissolved oxygen was ca. 20% for ALCAT and PAX 18 at both dosages and 15% for PAX XL 19H, respectively. The floc formation growth indicated that PACl coagulation occurred not only by charge neutralization but also by a form of sweep flocculation. Besides, flocs formed by ALCAT had better sizes than the flocs formed by PAX 18 and PAX XL19H. The rate of sedimentation was stable during coagulation with higher doses, and it was dependent on the substance used.