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Open access

M. Abbas, N. A. Shah, K. Jehangir, M. Fareed and A. Zaidi

Abstract

Zinc telluride (ZnTe) polycrystalline films have been grown on well-cleaned glass substrates by thermal vacuum evaporation technique using 99.99 % pure ZnTe powder as an evaporant. The samples were prepared at different substrate temperatures, rates of evaporation and thicknesses. The X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of the films. The structures of the samples were found to be polycrystalline with preferred (1 1 1) orientation. Transmission spectra of all ZnTe films were recorded in the range of 300 nm to 2500 nm. The films were electrically characterized using Hall effect measurements at room temperature. It has been stated that the electrical resistivity, mobility and carrier concentration are strongly influenced by the substrate temperature. From the SEM results, it is clear that the surface of ZnTe is very smooth with occasional large particles on it.

Open access

M. Jusoh, Z. Abbas, K. Lee, K. You and A. Norimi

Determination of Moisture Content in Mortar at Near Relaxation Frequency 17 GHz

The knowledge of moisture content in cement based material is important especially for the safety in field work. In this paper, a non-destructive and contactless free space method is used for measurement of moisture content in cement based materials (mortar) at microwave frequencies. The measurement system consists of a 17 GHz dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) as a microwave source, a Power Meter as the detector, and a pair of lens horn antennas to transmit and receive the microwave signal. An empirical formula of moisture content was obtained by using a relationship between attenuation and moisture content. This model is best for prediction of moisture content greater than 2% with percentage mean error of 3%.

Open access

M. Jusoh, Z. Abbas, J. Hassan, B. Azmi and A. Ahmad

A Simple Procedure to Determine Complex Permittivity of Moist Materials Using Standard Commercial Coaxial Sensor

A simple procedure was developed to determine complex permittivity of moist materials for known percentage of moisture content at any frequency based using a standard commercial coaxial sensor. Polynomial fitting and Gaussian elimination method were applied to obtain a single equation of complex permittivity as a function of frequency and moisture content. The empirical equation was tested for new samples and was found to have mean error percentage of 5.14 % and 10.22 % for dielectric constant and loss factor, respectively, when compared to a commercial probe.

Open access

Jasim M. Abbas, Zamri Chik and Mohd Raihan Taha

Abstract

A three-dimensional finite element technique was used to analyse single pile lateral response subjected to pure lateral load. The main objective of this study is to assess the influence of the pile slenderness ratio on the lateral behaviour of single pile. The lateral single pile response in this assessment considered both lateral pile displacement and lateral soil resistance. As a result, modified p-y curves for lateral single pile response were improved when taking into account the influence lateral load magnitudes, pile cross sectional shape and flexural rigidity of the pile. The finite element method includes linear elastic, Mohr-Coulomb and 16-nodes interface models to represent the pile behaviour, soil performance and interface element, respectively. It can be concluded that the lateral pile deformation and lateral soil resistance because of the lateral load are always influenced by lateral load intensity and soil type as well as a pile slenderness ratio (L/D). The pile under an intermediate and large amount of loading (in case of cohesionless soil) has more resistance (low lateral displacement) than the pile embedded on the cohesion soil. In addition, it can be observed that the square-shaped pile is able to resist the load by about 30% more than the circular pile. On the other hand, pile in cohesionless soil was less affected by the change in EI compared with that in cohesive soil.

Open access

M. Namazov and A. Alili

Abstract

This paper deals with a systematic design procedure that guarantees the stability and optimal performance of the nonlinear systems described by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models. Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model allows us to represent a nonlinear system by linear models in different state space regions. The overall fuzzy model is obtained by fuzzy blending of these linear models. Then based on this model, linear controllers are designed for each linear model using parallel distributed compensation. Stability and optimal performance conditions for Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control systems can be represented by a set of linear matrix inequalities which can be solved using software packages such as MATLAB’s LMI Toolbox. This design procedure is illustrated for a nonlinear system which is described by a two-rule Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. The fuzzy model was built in MATLAB Simulink and a code was written in LMI Toolbox to determine the controller gains subject to the proposed design approach.

Open access

H. Menasra, Z. Necira, K. Bounabe, M. Abba, A. Meklid and A. Boutarfaia

Abstract

Pb(1-x)Lax [(Zr0.6Ti0.4)(1-x)(Mn1/3Sb2/3)x]O3 ceramics with x = 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.05 were synthesized by using a conventional solid state reaction route. The influence of La, Mn, and Sb contents on phase structure, microstructure, and electric properties were investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that the phase structure of the ceramics transforms from rhombohedral phase to tetragonal phase. However, the minority pyrochlore phase appears on the micrographs of XRD and SEM if the doping concentration is greater than 2 mol%. The grain size of the ceramics gradually increases (from 1.36 μm to 1.57 μm) with increasing doping. The dielectric properties of the ceramics have been measured as a function of temperature in the range of 20 °C to 430 °C at 1 kHz. The results indicate that the transition temperature and the maximum dielectric constant decrease with increasing PL-PMS content in the system. These results clearly show the significance of PL-PMS in controlling the dielectric behavior of the PL-PMS-PZT system.

Open access

Bashaer J. Kahdum, Abbas J. Lafta and Amir M. Johdh

Abstract

In this study, some types of composites consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and spinel oxide (Co, Ni)3O4 were synthesized by simple evaporation method. These composites were characterized by UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-rays diffraction(XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area(SBET). The photocatalytic activity of the prepared composites was investigated by the following removal of Bismarck brown G (BBG) dye from its aqueous solutions. The obtained results showed that using MWCNTs in combination with spinel oxide to produced composites (spinel/MWCNTs) which succeeded in increasing the activity of spinel oxide and exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than spinel oxide alone. Also it was found that, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were successful in increasing the adsorption and improving the activity of photocatalytic degradation of Bismarck brown G dye(BBG). The obtained results showed that spinel/MWCNTs was more active in dye removal in comparison with each of spinel oxide and MWCNTs alone under the same reaction conditions. Also band gap energies for the prepared composites showed lower values in comparison with neat spinel. This point represents a promising observation as these composites can be excited using a lower energy radiation sources.

Open access

M. Zakria, Taj Muhammad Khan, Abbas Nasir and Arshad Mahmood

Abstract

Cd1−xZnxS thin films of variable compositions (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) were deposited on glass at room temperature by thermal evaporation process. The prepared samples were annealed at two different temperatures (300 °C, 400 °C) for 1 hour in ambient air. The effects of post-annealing on the structural and optical characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectrophotometry, and Raman spectroscopy (RS) methods. XRD studies suggested that the annealed and as-deposited samples belong to wurtzite structure for all Zn concentrations with a preferential orientation along (002) plane. Spectrophotometry analysis of the samples revealed that the energy band gap decreased with annealing temperature. RS investigated different phonon bands and crystalline phases. Two longitudinal optical phonon modes (1-LO, 2-LO) corresponding to monophase hexagonal structure were observed for all Cd1−xZnxS samples. The observed red-shift and anti-symmetrical nature of the 1-LO phonon mode can be associated with annealing, while the overall blue-shift, except for x ⩽ 0.6, was caused by the structural disorders in periodic Cd atomic sub-lattices and broken translational symmetry. The spectroscopic results were strengthened by the XRD studies and their results are consistent.

Open access

Marin Marin and Ibrahim Abbas

Abstract

The aim of our paper is the study of the spatial evolution of vibrations in the context of Thermoelasticity without energy dissipation for dipolar bodies. Once we get an a priori estimate for the amplitude of the vibration, which are assumed being harmonic in time, it is possible to predict some spatial decay or growth properties for the amplitude, provided the frequency of vibration is greater than a certain critical value.

Open access

Maria Arshad, Abbas Khan, Zahoor H. Farooqi, Muhammad Usman, M. Abdul Waseem, Sayyar Ali Shah and Momin Khan

Abstract

Due to their potential application in various fields of science and technology, the eco-friendly bio-synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) is a growing area for researchers. In this study, we report the green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and their characterization by using various techniques. For the preparation of Ag particles, aqueous plant extract of ailanthus altissima was used as a reducing medium for Ag+ ions of silver nitrate to Ag0. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to trace the formation of Ag particles by noting their surface plasmon resonance peaks (400 nm to 440 nm). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was employed to reveal the chemical composition of Ag nanoparticles which were capped by plant extract. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to get the lattice image, morphology and average size of Ag particles. The average size distribution of Ag NPs dispersed in aqueous media was also measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS). It was found that DLS results are in good agreement with those obtained from SEM. The synthesized particles were then subjected to the antibacterial and antifungal activities by studying them against various species, such as bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and A. parasiticus, A. niger and A. flavus fungi. It was noted from the growth curves of both bacteria and fungi that in the presence of silver nanoparticles they show more in-zone growth as compared to the plant extract.