The karyotype of a caryophyllidean tapeworm Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) from the freshwater bream Abramis brama (L.) caught in the Slovak part of the River Tisa, was described and originally inspected for amount of heterochromatin and its chromosome localization. The chromosome set comprised nine metacentric and one submetacentric (No. 3) pairs (2n = 20). The chromosomes were up to 12.0 ± 2.5 μm long and the mean total length of haploid genome (TLC) reached 80.6 μm that represents one of the highest yet recorded values among tapeworms. C-banding and staining with fl uorescent dyes DAPI and YOYO1 revealed a distinct banding pattern explicitly on chromosomes with centromeric bright heterochromatin bands present on all 10 chromosome pairs; no pair showed any interstitial heterochromatin. A complete course of spermatocyte meiosis and dynamics of nucleolus formation and degradation during meiotic division was described.
Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Rudolphi, 1809) is here redescribed on the basis of Rudolphi’s material, deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, and on acanthocephalans recently collected from the type host Platichthys flessus (L.) and the region embodying the type locality. Out of the paratypes of P. tereticollis, the lectotype and paralectotypes have been designated. Their morphology fits well with that of newly collected material of P. tereticollis dissected from the type fish host from the Baltic coast near Stralsund. The resurrection of P. tereticollis, previously considered a synonym of Pomphorhynchus laevis (Zoega in Müller, 1779), is supported by several morphological features distinguishing the two Pomphorhynchus species: 1. The basal parts of the proboscis hooks located on the posterior proboscis half possess proximal projections in P. tereticollis but not in P. laevis. This shape of the hook bases is clearly visible only in unfixed fresh worms; 2. The last hooks are situated at the anterior part of the bulbus or rarely at the posterior-most end of the proboscis in P. tereticollis, while they lie anterior to the end of the proboscis in P. laevis; 3. The proboscis hooks No. 5 or 6 are markedly stout (robust) and clearly distinct in comparison with the surrounding hooks in P. tereticollis, while less robust and more similar to the hooks in P. laevis. In addition, genetic divergence between P. tereticollis and P. laevis based on ITS1, ITS2 and COI sequencing supports the existence of two distinct species and reveals that some isolates previously identified as P. laevis were actually P. tereticollis. Previous and present morphological and genetic data show that both Pomphorhynchus species occur in freshwaters throughout Europe and may infect the same fish hosts, such as chub and barbel, and also several species of isopods (Gammaridae). This study also provides morphological evidence that Pomphorhynchus intermedius Engelbrecht, 1957 is a synonym of P. tereticollis, because the only discrimination character of the former species, the “existing but small proximal projections of basal parts of the proboscis hooks located on the posterior proboscis half” are present also in P. tereticollis.
Echinostomatid trematode Echinoparyphium limosorum n. sp. from the charadriiform bird Limosa limosa is described on basis of morphometrical study of museum material. The new species is characterized by medium-sized body up to 4.9 mm long, reniform head collar up to 511 wide, armed with 48–51 collar spines up to 91 µm, arranged in double row. The new species is largely similar to Echinoparyphium recurvatum, however, the most remarkable difference lays in the higher number of collar spines which are 48–51 in E. limosorum n. sp. but 45 in E. recurvatum. The authors discuss relative impact of numerical generic characters and propose an amending of the diagnosis of The genus Echinoparyphium given by Kostadinova (2005) as follows: Collar spines up to 51, sharply pointed, all in double row.
M. Reblánová, M. Špakulová, M. Orosová, E. Bazsalovicsová and D. Rajský
The study describes a karyotype of a common parasite of cervids, the giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna (Trematoda, Platyhelminthes). The chromosome set of F. magna comprises 11 pairs of chromosomes, all classified as subtelocentric except for the submeta-metacentric pair No. 8 and the submetacentric pair No. 10 (2n = 22, n = 1sm + 1sm-m + 9st). The first longest pair is 4.65 μm long and the length decreases continuously to the 1.92 μm length of the last pair No. 11. No distinct secondary constriction has been observed in mitotic preparations. Fluorescent DAPI-staining reveals distinct heterochromatin bands on all 11 chromosome pairs in the centromeric regions; another DAPI-positive bands are localized at the end of the long arms of chromosomes No. 5 and the last less distinct signals appear interstitially on the long arms of the pair No. 6. Synchronous meiotic divisions of 8-spermatocyte groups have been observed during spermatogenesis, similarly with a development of spermatocytes in other trematodes. In the first two stages of heterotypic spermatocyte division, 11 bivalents (n = 11) are regularly observed, confirming the diploid number of 22 elements. Furthermore, the present analysis summarises and discusses available cytogenetic data on Fasciolidae flukes suitable for future studies on taxonomy or phylogenetic interrelationships within the family.
E. Bazsalovicsová, I. Králová-Hromadová, M. Špakulová, M. Reblánová and K. Oberhauserová
The species-specific ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) markers were designed for PCR-based molecular differentiation of Fasciola hepatica, Fascioloides magna, Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Paramphistomum cervi, liver and stomach flukes of domestic and free living ruminants. Complete ITS2 sequences were obtained for D. dendriticum and P. cervi, for the later species, ITS2 structure was determined for the first time. Intraspecific variation within geographically distant populations was found to be either very low (F. hepatica; D. dendriticum) or even absent (F. magna; P. cervi). ITS2 regions with the absence of intraspecific polymorphisms but with interspecific sequence heterogeneity were applied for design of speciesspecific primers. The specificity of developed primers was tested on genomic DNA isolated from adult individuals of studied fluke species. Application of the primers is of particular value for molecular differentiation of morphologically hardly distinguishable F. hepatica, F. magna and P. cervi eggs after coprological examinations.
E. Bazsalovicsová, M. Špakulová, L’. Juhásová, Š. Miholics, D. Rajský and I. Králová-Hromadová
Fascioloidosis of wild and domestic ruminants is caused by giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna (Trematoda; Fasciolidae). In Slovakia, the parasite is present in the Danube floodplain forests permanent focus for almost 30 years. Here we provide data on 11-year survey of F. magna acquired from 137 red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunted in the southwestern hunting grounds (districts Komárno and Dunajská Streda). Almost 47 % of all examined deer, including males, females and fawns, were infected with F. magna. During the studied period, the prevalence ranged between 33.3 % (2009) and 63.6 % (2007). Prevalence of fascioloidosis varied between sexes and age categories; while the lowest overall prevalence was detected in females (33.3 %), higher values were documented for red deer males (50.6 %) and fawns (43.3 %). A presence of giant liver fluke in studied regions of southwestern Slovakia deserves future attention and ongoing monitoring due to a possible threat of F. magna infection of domestic ruminants in overlapping regions.
P. Komorová, J. Sitko, M. Špakulová, Z. Hurníková, R. Sałamatin and G. Chovancová
In the years 2012-2014, carcasses of 286 birds of prey from the territory of Slovakia were examined for the presence of helminth parasites. The number of bird species in the study was 23; five belonging to the Falconiformes order, eleven to Accipitriformes, and seven to Strigiformes. A finding of Cestoda class comprehended 4 families: Paruterinidae (4), Dilepididae (2), Mesocestoididae (2) and Anoplocephalidae (1). Birds of prey were infected with 6 families Nematoda species of the Secernentea class: Syngamidae (1), Habronematidae (2), Tetrameridae (3), Physalopteridae (1), Acuariidae (1), and Anisakidae (2). Out of the Adenophorea class, the Capillariidae family (1) was confirmed. The Acanthocephala group was represented by the Paleacanthocephala class, the Centrorhynchidae family (3). Out of the Trematoda class, 12 different species of flukes were found, belonging to the Diplostomidae (5), Cyathocotylidae (1), Strigeidae (4), Opistorchidae (1), and Plagiorchidae (1) families. The most frequent helminth species infecting diurnal birds of prey was Strigea falconis. This fluke was confirmed in one bird species from the Falconiformes order and in eight species from the Accipitriformes order. In nocturnal birds of prey, the most common finding was the acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus aluconis, identified in four different host species of the Strigiformes order. In total, 23 helminth species were recorded for the first time in Slovakia.
M. Kocianová-Adamcová, M. Špakulová and E. Kocianová
During a long-term survey (1999–2005) of parasitic larvae of nidicolous nematode Rhabditis orbitalis Sudhaus et Schulte, 1986 in the West Tatra Mts, the nematodes were detected in the eye orbits of snow voles Chionomys nivalis in 1999, 2004 and 2005. In the last year, R. orbitalis was detected also in another vole species Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus tatricus both in previously studied site and in the Low Tatra Mts, however, it has never appeared at other rodent species. For the first time, an irregular occurrence of the R. orbitalis parasitic larvae has been ascertained in natural conditions of the Slovak mountains. The eye nematodes occurred only during autumn or cold and rather wet summer months, when density of the preferred host Ch. nivalis was relatively low. A hypothesis has been put forward that an occasional appearance of parasitic eye larvae in the life cycle of bacteriophagous R. orbitalis represents a strategy for surviving periods of a scarcity of bacterial food, which could be influenced by a combination of weather conditions, density of host rodents and seasonal abundance of R. orbitalis in rodent nests.
D. Konjević, M. Špakulová, R. Beck, M. Goldová, K. Severin, J. Margaletić, K. Pintur, T. Keros and S. Perić
The present study reports for the first time on the helminth species occurring in the gastro-intestinal system of fat dormice (Glis glis) in Croatia. Out of 55 dormice, 63.7 % harboured helminths belonging to two species, the nematode Paraheligmonina gracilis (syn. Longistriata elpatievskii) (Heligmonellidae, Trichostrogyloidea) in the prevalence of 52.7 %, and the cestode Hymenolepis sulcata (Hymenolepididae, Cyclophyllidea) in the prevalence of 32.7 %. Concurrent infections of both parasites were found in 12 fat dormice, P. gracilis alone was detected in 17 hosts and H. sulcata alone in 6 samples. No influence of parasitic infestation on animal weight was observed. Glirid helminths do not represent zoonotic pathogens despite the fact that dormice occasionally inhabit cottages and village houses, and are used in human nutrition.