Traditional agricultural landscapes (TAL) are landscapes in which primarily traditional sustainable agricultural practices are currently carried out and where biological diversity is conserved thereby. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extension of traditional landscape structures and their relationship to geological substrate and slope processes (landslides). The evaluation was concentrated on two types of TAL (extended to Kysuce region): TAL with dispersed settlements (subtype 1a and b) and TAL of arable-land, grasslands and pastures (subtype 4a and b). Localities with typical dispersed settlements of subtype 1a mostly occur on Zlin formation and cover 707.9 ha. On the deluvial formation, this type extends to 531.8 ha and on the Solaň formation, to 403.6 ha. The active landslides are mostly represented in the TAL of subtype 4a (cadastral areas of Čadca and Oščadnica villages), of subtype 4b (cadastral areas of Riečnica and Svrčinovec villages) and of subtype 1a (cadastral area of Svrčinovec village). The largest representation of potential landslides is on the subtype 4a, subtype 1a and subtype 4b.
The growing development of settlements in mountainous areas and their sustainable development constantly requires new approaches to assess the land in terms of occurrence of landslides. The flysch zone, where the monitored area is located, is one of the most landslide prone areas in Slovakia. Landslides respond sensitively to the quality of the individual factors that form the landscape and to the change of natural conditions. Their occurrence is a geo-barrier that reduces or totally prevents the use of natural environment and negatively affects the life of population and territorial development. The reason for the increased hazard of landslides is not only demographic pressure on territories, but also its poor management. Consistent spatial planning addresses not only the spatial layout but also the functional use of the territory. Landslides represent one of the limits of land use. This study is based on the assessment of landsliding as a limit to possible territorial development. The input parameters for the assessment were elements of the current landscape structure (built up structure, forest stands, transitional woodland-shrubs, traditional agricultural land, permanent grasslands and arable land) and occurring landslides (active, potential and stabilized). On most of the determined elements of the landscape, landslides occur on about a quarter of their area. They have a smaller share only in areas of mixed forests, built up areas and have the smallest share on arable land. Potential landslides have the largest proportion on all landscape elements. They occupy the largest areas on coniferous forests (1578.93 ha) and on permanent grasslands (741.33 ha). By evaluating the overall endangerment of the area by landslides according to the degree of threat, we found that the greatest threat of landslides is in the Skalité and Svrčinovec cadastral areas, the smallest threat is in the Čadca cadastral area. In addition to the danger of landsliding in the individual elements of the landscape, we have also set limits for its development. Spatial planning limits have been divided into two categories according to the sectors they affect the most: limiting the development of an area assigned for residential building, or restricting the development of an area designed for agricultural and forestry purposes.
The landslide susceptibility was assessed based on multivariation analysis. The input parameters were represented by lithology, land use, slope inclination and average annual precipitation. These parameters were evaluated as independent variables, and the existing landslides as dependent variables. The individual input parameters were reclassified and spatially adjusted. Spatial analysis resulted in 15 988 combinations of input parameters representing the homogeneous condition unit (HCU ). Based on the landslide density within individual units, the HCU polygons have been classified according to landslide risk into stable, conditionally stable, conditionally stable and unstable (subdivided into low, medium and high landslide risk). A total of 2002 HCU s were affected by landslides, and the remaining 13 986 were not affected. The total HCU area affected by landslides is about 156.92 km2 (20.1%). Stable areas covered 623.01 km2 (79.8%), and conditionally stable areas covered 228.77 km2 (29.33% out of this area). Unstable areas were divided into three levels of landslide risk - low, medium and high risk. An area of 111.19 km2 (14.3%) represents low landslide risk, medium risk 29.7 km2 (3.8%) and 16.01 km2 (2%) represents high risk. Since Zlín Formation lithological unit covers approximately one-third of the study area, it also influences the overall landslide risk assessment. This lithological formation covers the largest area within all landslide risk classes as well as in conditionally stable areas. The most frequent slope class was in the range of 14-19. The higher susceptibility of Zlín Formation to landslides is caused mainly by different geomorphological value of claystone and sandstone sequence. The higher share of claystone results in higher susceptibility of this formation to exogenous degradation processes.
Territory of Kysuce is characterised by a high proportion of the traditional agricultural landscape (TAL), which occupy almost 12% of the area. Two types of TAL were allocated here. The first type is represented by TAL with dispersed settlement. The second type is represented by TAL of arable land and grassland landscape. The largest representation has typical forms of anthropogenic relief (FAR). TALs represent the most diverse mosaic of man-made habitats and natural habitats too. In the past, there were the largest representations of arable land and regularly mown meadows. Currently, these areas are dominated by abandoned meadows (fallow meadows), occasionally grazed pastures and meadows. Arable land is represented only minimally. The large part of areas is overgrown by non-forest woody vegetation or passes to the forest vegetation. In this process of landscape changes, significant changes in biodiversity of the areas are realised. Successively, the species of segetal and ruderal vegetation are less represented and species of forest vegetation obtained greater representation. In the process of mapping and evaluation, FAR - shape and orientation of plots, types of balks and some of their basic characteristics - were monitored.
Tourism is an industry with a strong long-term potential of becoming one of the key industries in securing the country’s economic growth. Tourists are nowadays interested in not only getting to know the cultural-historical peculiarities, but also the way of life and cultural traditions of the inhabitants of the individual regions. Kysuce region is characterised by scattered settlement, which used to be a significant type of settlement in remote and inaccessible parts of the area in the past. Nowadays, however, the majority of the objects of the scattered settlement either serve as holiday chalets or are uninhabited.The aim of this paper is to evaluate the recreational potential of tourism in Kysuce region. Based on the established methodology, the individual villages were divided into five categories: areas with less suitable potential of tourism development (PTD), areas with suitable PTD, areas with quality PTD, areas with PTD of high quality and areas with the most significant PTD. These categories have been established based on the point evaluation of the potential of input indicators – natural potential, cultural-historical potential, recreational infrastructure and environmental infrastructure. The most significant PTD in the monitored area is the village of Oščadnica (279 points), and the villages of Horný Vadičov (231 points), Raková (224 points) and Nová Bystrica (219.5 points) were evaluated as the areas with PTD of high quality. Agro-tourism in this region is, however, the least developed, despite the location of the region being very favourable for such an activity. Its development could lower unemployment and offer a source of income of the inhabitants, or reduce movement of the inhabitants into other regions of Slovakia. Subsequently, the character of the landscape with all its key functions for sustaining the quality of the environment could be preserved.
The flysch areas belong to the territories with highest occurrence of landslides in Slovakia. Almost 67% of all landslides in Slovakia take place within the Carpathian flysch. It is a type of slope deformation that responds sensitively to the quality of individual factors that form the landscape and to the change in natural conditions. The occurrence of various geodynamic phenomena can be understood as a geological barrier that reduces or inhibits the use of natural environment and negatively affects the life of society and territorial development. In this paper, we evaluate the statistical significance of selected natural factors of the landscape in relation to the occurrence of unstable slopes in the Kysuce region. In addition, we also evaluated the expansion of unstable slopes in individual landscape factors. Significant linkages between the variables’ hydrogeological base_sandstones with thin clay layers (HB_s) and geological-substrate complex_loamy wastes to loamy-stony debris on sandy conglomerates (GSC_sc) (R = 0.95, p = 0.002) and secondary significant linkages between the variables soil type: Dystric Cambisols (S_CMd) and HB_s (R = 0.40, p = 0.002) (Klokočov and Zákopčie cadastres) were observed. Significant correlation of variables within the areas with unstable slopes was also observed between hydrogeological base_sandy flysch (HB_sf) and geological-substrate complex_loamy wastes on flysch stones (GSC_fs) (R = 0.81, p = 0.002) (Nová Bystrica and Kysucké Nové Mesto cadastres). The most unstable slopes occur in Nová Bystrica cadastre (34.62% of the area) and in the Klokočov cadastre (28.25% of the area). The inclination of slopes (especially slopes above 12°) plays an important role within the unstable slopes. Slopes with steep inclination cover up to 81.45% of the cadastral area of Nová Bystrica, of which almost 1/3 are unstable slopes.
Ďugova O., Barančokova M., Krajči J., Barančok P.: Soil micromycetes and vegetation changes associated with vegetative cover destruction on chosen localities of Tatry Mountains - first approach. Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 2, p. 158-172, 2013.
Species composition of soil micromycetes and vegetation and its changes associated with vegetative cover destruction were observed in four localities of Tatry Mts. Three research plots with different extent of vegetation destruction on each locality were subjectively chosen: control plots with almost no destruction of vegetation and soil cover (C), partially disturbed plots (B) and plots with high level of soil cover destruction where cover of herb layer was less than 20% (A). Plant species composition of control plots was characterised by the highest level of taxonomical diversity, highest cover of herb and moss layer and represented by alpine herb and grass communities on siliceous bedrock (Juncion trifidi alliance) and alpine and subalpine plant communities on calcareous bedrock (Seslerion tatrae alliance). Devastation of soil and vegetation on B and A plots was performed particularly by decreasing of herb layer cover and changes in species composition: species as Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Calluna vulgaris were absent, whereas Poa alpina, Potentilla aurea, Agrostis rupestris or Avenella flexuosa occurred on devastated plots often. From investigated soils 43 species of soil micromycetes were identified. Control plot of each locality was represented by the highest taxonomical diversity of soil micromycetes. The number of species significantly decreased on plots with successive destruction of vegetation cover (B and A). Several species were identified in just one case (Penicillium digitatum (pers.:Fr.) Sacc., Chrysosporium keratinophilum D.Frey ex J.W. Carmich. etc.). The outcomes showed that soil microorganisms as well as vascular plants react on destruction of soil cover very sensitively.