Isolation and free-radical-scavenging properties of cyanidin 3-O-glycosides from the fruits of Ribes biebersteinii Berl.
The reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatographic purification of the methanol extract of the fruits of Ribes biebersteinii Berl. (Grossulariaceae) afforded five cyanidin glycosides, 3-O-sambubiosyl-5-O-glucosyl cyanidin (1), cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside (2), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (3), cyanidin 3-O-(2G-xylosyl)-rutinoside (4) and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (5). They showed considerable free-radical-scavenging properties in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay with the RC50 values of 9.29 × 10-6, 9.33 × 10-6, 8.31 × 10-6, 8.96 × 10-6 and 9.55 × 10-6 mol L-1, respectively. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various chemical hydrolyses and spectroscopic means. The total anthocyanin content was 1.9 g per 100 g dried fruits on cyanidin 3-glucoside basis.