Four inoculation methods were investigated for assessing the clonal variation of eucalypts in susceptibility to bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). The results showed that these inoculation methods obviously differed in the disease infection process, clonal variation and clonal mean repeatability in susceptibility of stock materials inoculated. For each inoculation method, the clonal effect was consistently significant over the assessment period. Root-collar suspension injection method (RSI) yielded the highest relative clonal variation (0.67±0.086) and clonal mean repeatability (0.92±0.038) in both disease infected incidence and severity at the end of assessment, attributable to the enhanced genetic variation or low environment effect. For a given inoculation method, an early assessment time might exist for maximizing relative clonal variation or repeatability. It is desirable in breeding to adopt an inoculation method and/or efficient assessment time with high clonal variance component, which would in turn improve the efficiency of clonal screening.
Shell model calculations have been carried out for 90Nb nucleus with the model space in which the valence protons occupy the f5/2, p3/2, p1/2, and g9/2 orbitals and the valence neutrons occupy the p1/2, g9/2, d5/2, and g7/2 orbitals. According to the calculated results, the negative parity is from the contribution of the proton of the f5/2, p3/2, and p1/2 orbits. The moderate spin states of 90Nb are mainly due to the excitation of protons from the f5/2 and p3/2 orbits to the p1/2 and g9/2 orbits across the Z = 38 subshell closure, and the high spin states arise from the excitation of a single neutron from the g9/2 orbit into the d5/2 orbit across the N = 50 shell closure.