Background: Along with brushing, using dental floss is an important part of tooth cleaning. This adjunctive method helps remove the bacterial plaque mainly from the interdental area and from the gingival sulcus.
The aim of the study was to compare the correct and incorrect methods of using dental floss among students from different high schools and students from the Faculty of Dentistry.
Material and methods: A total number of 96 young adults with a mean age of 21 years (range 18–25 years) were admitted in the study, being divided into three groups: students from Baia Mare (Group 1), students from Odorheiu Secuiesc (Group 2), and the control group consisted of students from the Faculty of Dental Medicine from Tîrgu Mureș (Group 3). The students were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding the use of dental floss. In the second part of the study, a total number of 30 students (10 students from each group) were examined using the Williams periodontal probe, a dental mirror, and a dental probe, and the following parameters were recorded: the papilla bleeding index (PBI), the tartar index (TI), and the DMF-S index.
Results: The lowest gingival bleeding during brushing was observed in Group 3 (p = 0.0070). The majority of people who regularly use dental floss were in Group 3 (p <0.0001). There were no significant differences between groups regarding gender in the use of dental floss: Group 1 (p >0.9999), Group 2 (p = 0.3358), and Group 3 (p = 0.3303).
Conclusions: Regarding the used periodontal indices (TI, PBI), the highest peak was achieved by students from Group 2, and the lowest values were recorded among students from Group 3. The DMF-S index was the highest among students from Group 1 and lowest among students from Group 3.
Periodontal disease can have significant effects by increasing the circulating levels of TNF-α, therefore its prevention and treatment is important in maintaining the overall health of the body. Objective: The aim of our research was to assess the differences in the salivary concentration of TNF-α between patients with periodontal disease and those free of the disease and to studz whether it can represent an indicator of the evolution of periodontal disease. We also aimed to assess the practical applicability of the method for the determination of this cytokine in the saliva. Materials and methods: Our study included two groups of subjects, the first group consisting in patients diagnosed with periodontal disease, while the control group included subjects free of periodontal disease. TNF-α concentration was determined with the ELISA test for human TNF-α and the results were expressed in pg/ mL. The data were statistically processed with GraphPad software and the statistical nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. Results: We observe nearly double values of the TNF-α salivary level in the group of patients suffering from periodontal disease compared to the subjects free of periodontal disease, which allows us to notice that saliva analysis is a useful and safely enough method for the diagnosis and follow-up in the development of periodontal disease. Conclusion: The salivary level of TNF-α in patients with periodontal disease is not only an indicator of periodontal disease progression, but also a reflection of the pathogen potential that periodontal disease may have on the overall health of the body.
About 50% of tooth loss is caused by either endodontic infection, periodontal disease or the combination of the two in the form on endo-perio lesions (EPL). Combined EPL develop due to the intimate anatomic and functional relation between endodontic and periodontal tissues. Both the pulp and periodontium share the same embryologic and anatomic origin. The various pathways connecting the two, added up to the extremely alike microorganisms in both illnesses’ etiology, create a complex condition in which interdisciplinary approach is required. Despite numerous decades of literature describing these lesions, they remain a continuous challenge for practitioners in both diagnosing and managing. The purpose of this article is to present a comprehensive review of various aspects of the combined EPL and to emphasize the importance of making a correct diagnosis and adopting the appropriate treatment method in the management of these challenging situations.
In the etiology of periodontal disease, dental caries act as a favoring factor. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of untreated or incorrectly treated carious lesions in the occurrence of pathological changes in the periodontal support. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the impact of the dental caries in the appearance of destructive lesions at the periodontal level, we examined 378 X-rays. The radiographies were selected based on the presence of approximal dental cavities, untreated or incorrectly treated and we appreciated the association of these factors with the presence and the level of bone resorption of the interdental septum. Results: On the 378 radiographies we examined, it was discovered the presence of 398 approximal carious lesions, of which 146 were associated with bone resorption. The examined radiographies permitted us to evaluate 1512 fillings inserted in second class cavities, of which 1103 were correctly done, and 309 were incorrect and associated with bone resorption phenomena. Incorrectly done restorations were associated with bone resorption phenomena due to the lack of contact with the adjacent tooth for 213 of these, and because of an inaccurate adaptation at the level of the gingival threshold for 96. Conclusions: The dentist has to pay a special attention to the approximal coronary restorations because these can favor the retention of bacterial plaque and, in most cases, can lead to bone loos in the alveolar ridge area.
Background: Despite the scarcity of studies regarding periodontal disease in young patients (teenagers and young adults), it seems that this disorder is also affecting the young population. Risk factors for periodontal disease include older age, chronic tobacco use, male gender, habits regarding oral hygiene, educational status, ethnicity, and financial status.
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the periodontal health among adolescents in two high schools in Târgu Mureș that had dental practices.
Material and Methods: An online questionnaire consisting of 16 questions was distributed among high schoolers of Târgu Mureș. Data about personal characteristics, oral hygiene habits, family history of periodontal disease, risk factors for periodontal disease, and symptoms of periodontal disease observed by the respondents were collected and analyzed.
Results: Out of the 501 teenagers who responded to the online questionnaire, 114 (22.8%) were 18 years old and were mostly females (88.2%). Regarding oral hygiene habits, 75.8% prefer a manual toothbrush over an electric toothbrush, 66.7% brush their teeth twice a day, and 54.1% practice a horizontal method of toothbrushing. Mouthwash was the most used oral hygiene aid (58.3%). Family history of periodontal disease was observed in 21.9% of respondents. As favoring factors, nicotine addiction (23.8%), bruxism (24.4%), interposition of various objects between teeth (48.3%), past or present orthodontic treatments (38.7%) were recorded. Symptoms of gingivitis and periodontitis, such as gingival bleeding (81.4%), redness of gingiva (39.3%), increased gingival volume (44.5%), gingival retraction (22.8%), and halitosis (81%), were present in the responding teenagers.
Conclusions: In this study, periodontal disease was affecting mostly adolescent females who are practicing inappropriate methods of toothbrushing with inadequate frequency.
Background: There are several risk factors, general and local, which favor the onset of periodontal destruction, and their knowledge is essential to their correct identification and for the adoption of a suitable therapeutic management. The aim of the study was to assess periodontal health status of patients suffering from viral and bacterial infections and to determine the eventual relationship between periodontal diseases and infectious diseases.
Material and methods: Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 25 years (range 23–27 years) admitted to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of Tîrgu Mureș between December 1, 2013 – May 31, 2014 and diagnosed with bacterial and viral infections were included in the study (17 women, 8 men). Eight were infected with bacteria, and 17 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Patients were examined in the clinic using Williams periodontal probe, dental mirror, and lip retractor, and different periodontal parameters were recorded: the Silness Löe plaque index, papilla bleeding index, Community Periodontal Index in Treatment Needs (CPITN), periodontal pocket depth, gingival retraction.
Results: Values were significantly higher in patients infected with HIV in the following cases: among women in the Full Mouth Plaque Score (FMPS, p = 0.0312), among men in the depth of periodontal pockets (p = 0.0126), among men in the FMPS (p = 0.0282).
Conclusions: The FMPS showed a high value both in women and men infected with HIV. More and deeper pockets were found in men infected with HIV. The gingival retraction and the papillary bleeding index calculated for the entire oral cavity were not influenced by the type of infection. A periodic inspection and maintenance of oral hygiene instructions could play a significant role in preventing periodontal disease in these vulnerable groups.
Bacterial plaque has the primary etiologic role in triggering the pathological changes of periodontal disease. A major goal of periodontal therapy is supraand subgingival bacterial flora reduction through scaling and root planning, through local and general antimicrobial treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mechanical treatment of scaling and root planning in reducing or suppressing bacterial species from the periodontal pockets. In order to conduct this study we collected and analyzed subgingival plaque samples taken from the 50 periodontal pockets with a depth of about 5mm, from 50 subjects with diagnosis of generalized chronic periodontitis, before and after scaling and root planning. The usage of API 20A test allows a quick and easy identification of anaerobic bacteria based on biochemical properties. Additional complementary tests were used, such as examining the culture and the morpho-tinctorial features to confirm and complete the identification. The microbial flora that we were able to isolate from the periodontal pockets before scaling and root planning was very rich. After scaling and root planning the subjects showed clinical improvement in the periodontal status, and the microbiological analysis of the periodontal pockets mostly showed a quantitative and qualitative reduction of bacterial species. A local or general antimicrobial treatment is recommended to assure improved effectiveness because mechanical treatment alone cannot completely suppress bacterial flora.
Objectives: Fixed orthodontic appliances make daily application of oral hygiene standard procedures more difficult and in time may lead to accumulation of oral biofilms and development of gingivitis and hyperplasia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the periodontal health expressed by clinical indices in patients under orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, according to different oral hygene maintenance programs. Material and method: We performed a randomized prospective study on 60 patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (17-25 years of age) devided in three study groups. The clnical indices recorded were: modified gingival index, plaque index and sulcular bleeding index. Statistical analysis or the results were carried out using Student t test. Results: The patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A-patients were instructed to use electric brush, water flosser and interdental brush, group B- electric brush, interdental brush and fluoride and group C- manual brushing and fluoride. Statistical comparison of the values of the indexes with the Student t test for independent samples showed statistically significant differences in all three groups of patients studied between initial and final values of all recorded clinical parameters. Conclusions: Fixed orthodontics do not induce periodontal disease if basic principles of oral hygiene are followed in compliant patients, which are correctly instructed to deal with real challenge, represented by complete elimination of debris and bacterial accumulation.
Chloramphenicol eye drops are commonly prescribed in concentrations of 0.5-1% in the treatment of infectious conjunctivitis. In terms of ophthalmic solution preparation, the major disadvantage of chloramphenicol consists in its low solubility in water. The solubility is increased by substances that form chloramphenicol-complexes, for example: boric acid/borax or cyclodextrins. Objective: Experimental studies aimed to evaluate the potential advantages of enhancing the solubility and stability of chloramphenicol (API) by molecular encapsulation in b-cyclodextrin (CD), in formulation of ophthalmic solutions buffered with boric acid/borax system. Methods and Results: We prepared four APIb- CD complexes, using two methods (kneading and co-precipitation) and two molar ratio of API/b-cyclodextrin (1:1 and 1:2). The formation of complexes was proved by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the in vitro dissolution tests. Using these compounds, we prepared eight ophthalmic solutions, formulated in two variants of chloramphenicol concentrations (0.4% and 0.5%). Each solution was analyzed, by the official methods, at preparation and periodically during three months of storing in different temperature conditions (4°C, 20°C and 30°C). Conclusions: Inclusion of chloramphenicol in b-cyclodextrin only partially solves the difficulties due to the low solubility of chloramphenicol. The protection of chloramphenicol molecules is not completely ensured when the ophthalmic solutions are buffered with the boric acid/borax system.
Developmental disabilities exist in children and adolescents, enabling them to live an independent and self-governing life, requiring special health related services. We are intended to inform dental professionals in planning and implementing a dental treatment for people with developmental disabilities. Cerebral palsy is defined as being a group of motor abnormalities and functional impairments that affect muscle coordination, and characterized by uncontrolled body movements, intellectual disabilities, balance-related abnormalities or seizure disorders. These patients can be successfully treated in normal dental practices, but because they have problems with movements, care must be tailored accordingly. Down syndrome, a very common genetic disorder, is usually associated with different physical and medical problems, intellectual disabilities, and a developmental delay. These patients can be treated with success in dental offices, this way making a difference in the medical care for people with special needs. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Self-injurious behavior, obsessive routines and unpredictable body movements can influence dental care. Because of the coexisting conditions (epilepsy or intellectual disability), one can find this people among the most challenging to treat. There is a need of greater awareness, focus and education in the field of the unique and complex oral health care that people with disabilities need. Making a difference their oral health positively influences an already challenged existence. According to the ethical principles, patients with developmental disabilities should be treated equitably depending on their necessities.