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Open access

Luis Medina, Jorge Camacho and Carlos Fritsch

Abstract

Breast cancer screening is based on X-ray mammography, while ultrasound is considered a complementary technique with improved detection in dense tissue. However, breast cancer screening requires a technique that provides repeatable results at the inspection interval which cannot be achieved with manual breast exploration.

During the last years there have appeared several approaches to overcome this limitation by means of automated ultrasonic tomography performed with motorized probes or with a large set of array transducers.

This work addresses these problems by considering a quite simple and low-cost arrangement, formed with a ring of conventional medical-grade array probes which are multiplexed to the electronics to build Full Angle Spatially Compounded (FASC) images. The work analyzes the performance of such arrangement in terms of resolution and isotropy, showing by numerical modelling and experimentally that it provides high resolution and homogeneity in the whole imaged region.

The implementation of this technique would provide more than one circular FASC per second and a whole breast volume image in 1–2 minutes with conventional technology, a process fast enough to be clinically useful. Moreover, the automated technique is repeatable and can be used by the clinician to perform immediately the diagnosis without requiring additional data processing.

Open access

Juan González-Badillo, Mário Marques and Luis Sánchez-Medina

The Importance of Movement Velocity as a Measure to Control Resistance Training Intensity

Configuration of the exercise stimulus in resitance training has been traditionally associated with a combination of the so-called ‘acute resistance exercise variables’ (exercise type and order, loading, number of repetitions and sets, rests duration and movement velocity). During typical resistance exercise in isoinertial conditions, and assuming every repetition is performed with maximal voluntary effort, velocity unintentionally declines as fatigue develops. However, few studies analyzing the response to different resitance training schemes have described changes in repetition velocity or power. It thus seems necessary to conduct more research using models of fatigue that analyze the reduction in mechanical variables such as force, velocity and power output over repeated dynamic contractions in actual training or competition settings. Thus, the aim of this paper was to discuss the importance of movement velocity concerning control training intensity.

Open access

Omar Bellido-Valencia, Paul K. Huanca-Zúñiga and Luis A. Medina-Marroquín

Abstract

Andean grains (i.e. quinoa, amaranth) have been increasingly studied in recent times, mainly due to the increase in international consumption. However, Andean tubers other than potatoes have not been so widespread and are mainly studied for their starch, previously extracted. This work studied the morphology of native starch in four of these crops (oca, olluco, isaño and aracacha), during cooking and the evolution of their internal temperature in relation to sensory acceptability. Using scanning electron microscopy, it was determined that the size of crude starch granules was between 9 μm to 38.2 μm for oca, 4.48 to 24.9 μm for olluco, 4.45 to 22.9 μm for isaño, and 5.36 to 23.8 μm for arracacha. Sensorially, it was determined that the optimum cooking temperature for arracacha was 89.1°C, 90.9°C for oca, 91°C for isaño, and 91.4 °C for olluco. All samples had optimal cooking times shorter than potato, with the isaño having the best heat transfer.

Open access

Jorge Camacho, Luis Medina, Jorge F. Cruza, José M. Moreno and Carlos Fritsch

Abstract

Ultrasound is used for breast cancer detection as a technique complementary to mammography, the standard screening method. Current practice is based on reflectivity images obtained with conventional instruments by an operator who positions the ultrasonic transducer by hand over the patient’s body. It is a non-ionizing radiation, pain-free and not expensive technique that provides a higher contrast than mammography to discriminate among fluid-filled cysts and solid masses, especially for dense breast tissue. However, results are quite dependent on the operator’s skills, images are difficult to reproduce, and state-of-the-art instruments have a limited resolution and contrast to show micro-calcifications and to discriminate between lesions and the surrounding tissue. In spite of their advantages, these factors have precluded the use of ultrasound for screening.

This work approaches the ultrasound-based early detection of breast cancer with a different concept. A ring array with many elements to cover 360◦ around a hanging breast allows obtaining repeatable and operator-independent coronal slice images. Such an arrangement is well suited for multi-modal imaging that includes reflectivity, compounded, tomography, and phase coherence images for increased specificity in breast cancer detection. Preliminary work carried out with a mechanical emulation of the ring array and a standard breast phantom shows a high resolution and contrast, with an artifact-free capability provided by phase coherence processing.

Open access

G.Y. Perez-Medina, H.F. Lopez, F.A. Reyes-Valdés, A. Garza-Gomez and Luis M. López-Ochoa

Abstract

In this work a strip of a transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was welded using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and Laser CO2 welding (LBW) processes and the resultant strength and ductility of the welded joints evaluated. It was found that LBW lead to relatively high hardness in the fusion zone, FZ where the resultant microstructure was predominantly martensite. The relative volume fractions of phases developed in the welded regions were quantitatively measured using color metallography combined with X-ray diffraction analyses. It was found that the heat affected zone, HAZ developed the maximum amount of martensite (up to 32%) in the steel welded using LBW besides a mixture of bainite, retained austenite and ferrite phases. In contrast, a relatively low percent of martensite (10.8%) was found in the HAZ when the GMAW process was implemented.