The use of magnesium alloys in the automotive industry increased in the last decade because of their low weight and relative good mechanical properties. However, the variable loading conditions require a good fatigue behavior. This paper summaries the fatigue properties of magnesium alloys and presents new fatigue curve results for die cast AM50 magnesium alloy.
Colorectal cancer is a successful model of genetic biomarker development in oncology. Currently, several predictive or prognostic genetic alterations have been identified and are used in clinical practice. The RAS gene family, which includes KRAS and NRAS act as predictors for anti-epithelial growth factor receptor treatment (anti-EGFR), and it has been suggested that NRAS mutations also play a role in prognosis: patients harboring NRAS alterations have a significantly shorter survival compared to those with wild type tumours. BRAF V600E mutations are rare and occur mostly in tumors located in the ascending colon in elderly female patients. BRAF is instrumental in establishing prognosis: survival is shorter by 10–16 months in BRAF-mutant patients, and BRAF may be a negative prognostic factor for patients who undergo hepatic or pulmonary metastasectomy. Moreover, this mutation is used as a negative predictive factor for anti-EGFR therapies. Two new biomarkers have recently been added to the metastatic colorectal cancer panel: HER2 and microsatellite instability. While HER2 is still being investigated in different prospective studies in order to validate its prognostic role, microsatellite instability already guides clinical decisions in substituted with advanced colorectal cancer.
There are current evidences that support using above mentioned genetic biomarkers to better identify the right medicine that is supposed to be used in the right patient. This approach contributes to a more individualized patient-oriented treatment in daily clinical practice.