The idea of a Western Europe economic recovery occurs after World War II. First as a common market, and later, after enlargement towards Central and Eastern Europe as the single internal market. Due to the new challenges with which the global economy was faced, the longterm and short-term European economy needs a coherent growth economic strategy; the success of this strategy depends on joint action. Expanding the European economy is a continuous and irreversible process, yet it advances too slowly. The Lisbon strategy is a commitment to revive the European economy in all sectors. At 5 years after implementation of this strategy it was found that the results are insufficient, so meetings were held to relaunch the Lisbon Strategy. The success of the Lisbon Strategy (2000-2010) established different opinions from European political leaders. Due to the challenges of the globalized world, the objective of the Lisbon Strategy after 2010 remained valid and recognition of the failure of the Lisbon Strategy has been transformed into formulating a new strategy, namely "Europe 2020", whose objectives are more affordable and easier control. The "Europe 2020" strategy is a mechanism of coordination of several policies, such as social policy, education, research and energy, which are the competence of national governments. The E.U. aims to further improve the competitiveness of the global economy, and promoting their interests. Under the new strategy, each Member State must assume bold development objectives for their economies, and in accordance to tradition. The competitiveness of the EU economy is directly influenced by the political stability of Europe.
Rural Development Policy is a priority for the E.U., as half of the Union’s population lives in rural areas. This policy is focused on society’s durable development, under all its aspects: economic, social, cultural, and so on. The challenges which rural areas of member states face must be addressed, while at the same time applying European norms and standards for rural development. After Romania became a part of the E.U., rural areas here were supported through several national rural development programs, so as to create a durable and sustainable rural economy. Major changes are required to achieve this kind of development, such as replacing old agricultural structures, modernizing the village, while at the same time maintaining cultural and local identity. Rural areas in Romania are often affected by natural disasters. During the last 17 years, national rural development programs implied contracts worth billions of Euros. For instance, through the 2020 NRDP, a budget of 9.5 billion Euros was allocated, 8.1 billion Euros coming from E.U. funding and 1.34 billion Euros as national cofinancing. At the moment, Romania’s absorption degree for the 2020 NRDP is of 20% and is expected to surpass 50% by 2020. Another regional program includes the concept of Spatial Development - Romania - 2025. Spatial planning supports the avoidance of rural dispersion. The betterment of infrastructure is supported, such as access roads, expanding base utilities, consolidated works to prevent flooding or landslides, and so on.
Cohesion is a common European value. The E.U.’s cohesion policy is and will remain an essential financing instrument for various multiannual development programs, for both member states and regions. This policy contributes to the development of the European Union, by reducing disparities between regions, generating jobs and increasing GDP per capita. The current paper aims to highlight several accomplishments and failings of the current cohesion policy, with a particular focus on post-2007 Romania, as well as taking a look at the future policy, envisioned for 2021 - 2027. The cohesion fund is making investments in areas such as digital infrastructure, innovation, combating climate change, ecological transition, energy, health and others. The main criterion on which this kind of financing is made is GDP per capita; however, other criteria have been added as well: youth unemployment, level of education, climate change and likely, migrant integration, in the near future. The European Commission proposes that, for the next multiannual financial framework, namely 2021 - 2027, local authorities become more involved in managing E.U. funds, particularly cohesion funds. Several new elements have been identified, for this following time frame, which will contribute to the modernization of the cohesion policy; they include investments across all regions, making them more accessible to E.U. citizens, making it more adapted to regional development and linking it to the European semester.
Nowadays, the military forces’ operational environment is shaped by dynamic changes that give its most representative characteristics such as volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA). Based on this and taking into consideration the tendency of NATO to use more prominently its multinational military structures, we are obligated to adapt our way of teaching and training if we want to be effective in the process of educating the next leaders for future military environments. In other words, during the classes, also in the field, we should try to educate and train our cadets, at least, to think from a joint, interagency, intergovernmental and multinational (JIIM) perspective when conducting military actions, even at a small tactical level, such as the platoon.
Lucian Lobonț, Radu Emanuil Petruse, Paul Mihai Obrodoviciu and Ioan Bondrea
The development of the business - industry environment is unconceivable without the involvement of academia. On one hand, the universities can provide new perspectives and know-how which can be further translated into exquisite products and services for companies. On the other hand, the business environment can raise practical problems and challenges for academia, providing in the same time material support for finding solutions to these problems. This paper presents a successful partnership between business and academia materialized in the development of a robotized semiautomatic motorcycle transmission. Since the solutions existing on the market did not meet the specific requirements of our industrial partner, we were asked to design an innovative and cost effective clutch and gearbox mechanism. The paper presents all the stages passed from establishing specific objectives and tasks for each member of the project’s team, the specific steps followed in order to develop the clutch operation mechanism and the gear mechanism, the obstacles and failures encountered during the design process and the testing procedures, the optimizations implemented, up to the final solution. The advantages of such industry-academia projects are discussed and possible obstacles that can hinder this kind of collaboration are addressed.
Defining and analyzing the current typology of threats determines the military structures to operationally and, implicitly, organizationally adapt in order to ensure their ability to deter and combat hypothetical opponents in any operational environment. From the point of view of efficiency and effectiveness of action, it is no longer sufficient to engage the joint and multinational military structures alone, inter agency and intergovernmental action approaches being necessary. On these grounds, the intercultural dimension of the action of the military structures undergoes changes, moving from the internal plan, of the inter force relationships in the organic structure of the multinational military force into the external one, defined by the interactions between the latter and the structures/forces/elements within other agencies, intergovernmental organizations, to which the local population is added
Addressing the problem of tactical multinational military structures’ effectiveness is not new, this becoming an important concern of military specialists once with the participation of national contingents to different multinational missions. Today, recent hybrid threats generate the necessity for it to be analyzed and stressed more, because the interoperability level of NATO’s multinational military structures must ensure a common, timely, coordinated and effective response. The analyses of multinational military structures’ effectiveness from the perspective of cultural diversity have highlighted not only the positive aspects but also the negative ones. Lessons learned from numerous multinational military operations have demonstrated the fact that the reduction and elimination of negative manifestations of cultural diversity, both in static military structures (multinational commandment) and multinational maneuver structures depend largely on the cultural awareness’ level of military personnel. In this regard, the proper understanding of cultural awareness’ concept and its role in achieving the effectiveness of tactical multinational military structures and also the definition of the relationship between these two variables become significant milestones that will be addressed in this article
Nowadays, in addition to the already known challenges, the hybrid threats require new responses, which had a timely appearance (adapting the existing military capabilities, the establishment of new military structures, at division and brigade level, their training etc.) and which involve an unconditional cooperation between NATO Member States and between them and their partners. From the perspective of the military response, creating multinational military structures based on different national contingents raises a number of questions on how they succeed to act coherently, in a coordinated and integrated manner. In this respect, the role of interoperability in general, and of cultural interoperability at the level of NATO military structures, in particular, has significantly increased, becoming a necessity for the development of multinational military operations as a joint response to the hybrid threats.
Claudiu Puiac, Janos Szederjesi, Alexandra Lazar, Emoke Almasy, Paul Rad and Lucian Puscasiu
Introduction: Intraabdominal pressure monitoring is not routinely performed because the procedure assumes some invasiveness and, like other invasive procedures, it needs to have a clear indication to be performed. The causes of IAH are various. Mechanically ventilated patients have numerous parameters set in order to be optimally ventilated and it is important to identify the ones with the biggest interference in abdominal pressure. Although it was stated that mechanical ventilation is a potential factor of high intraabdominal pressure the set parameters which may lead to this diagnostic are not clearly named.
Objectives: To evaluate the relation between intraabdominal pressure and ventilator parameters in patients with mechanical ventilation and to determine the correlation between intraabdominal pressure and body mass index. Material and method: This is an observational study which enrolled 16 invasive ventilated patients from which we obtained 61 record sheets. The following parameters were recorded twice daily: ventilator parameters, intraabdominal pressure, SpO2, Partial Oxygen pressure of arterial blood. We calculated the Body Mass Index (BMI) for each patient and the volume tidal/body weight ratio for every recorded data point.
Results: We observed a significant correlation between intraabdominal pressure (IAP) and the value of PEEP (p=0.0006). A significant statistical correlation was noted regarding the tidal volumes used for patient ventilation. The mean tidal volume was 5.18 ml/kg. Another significant correlation was noted between IAP and tidal volume per kilogram (p=0.0022). A positive correlation was found between BMI and IAP (p=0.0049), and another one related to the age of the enrolled patients. (p=0.0045).
Conclusions: The use of positive end-expiratory pressures and high tidal volumes during mechanical ventilation may lead to the elevation of intraabdominal pressure, a possible way of reducing this risk would be using low values of PEEP and also low volumes for the setting of ventilation parameters. There is a close positive correlation between the intraabdominal pressure levels and body mass index.
The study of the cultural factor’s influence on military actions is not a recent issue, the main concerns being aimed at identifying some solutions for the improvement of the cooperation between different national contingents during stability and support operations. Instead, the use of culture as a weapon in the sense of military capability used to predict and influence the behavior of target groups is a completely new approach, currently being within reach of only few modern armies. From another perspective, the possibility of using engagement as a new war fighting function, assuming the development of skills and capabilities necessary to deal with the local population and regional security forces, determines the necessity to educate and develop a cultural capability for all military personnel. This can be identified as a real solution for the military forces in improving their missions’ accomplishment within the context of current and future operational environments.