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Andi Abeshi, Francesca Fanelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Lucia Ziccardi and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Mendelian glaucomas, a large heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, classified according to age of onset as congenital glaucoma, juvenile glaucoma and age-related glaucoma. Variations in the TEK, MYOC, ASB10, NTF4, OPA1, WDR36 and OPTN genes are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and variations in the CYP1B1 and LTBP2 genes have autosomal recessive inheritance. The prevalence of congenital glaucoma is estimated at 1-9 per 100 000, that of juvenile glaucoma at 1 per 50 000, while there is insufficient data to establish the prevalence of age-related glaucoma. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, age of onset, family history, ophthalmological examination, intraocular pressure, gonioscopy and fundoscopy. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Alessandra Zulian, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Lucia Ziccardi and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for cone rod dystrophies (CORDs). CORDs are caused by variations in the ABCA4, ADAM9, AIPL1, C8orf37, CACNA1F, CACNA2D4, CDHR1, CNGA3, CRX, DRAM2, GUCA1A, GUCY2D, HRG4, KCNV2, PDE6C, PITPNM3, POC1B, PROM1, PRPH2, RAB28, RAX2, RIMS1, RPGRIP1, RPGR SEMA4A, TTLL5 genes, with an overall prevalence of 1 per 40 000. Most genes have autosomal recessive inheritance; the others have autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive transmission. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, color vision testing, ophthalmological examination and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Carla Marinelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Lucia Ziccardi and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for Sorsby’s fundus dystrophy (SFD). SFD is caused by variations in the TIMP3 gene. Prevalence is, currently unknown. SFD has autosomal dominant inheritance. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, color vision testing, optical coherence tomography, ophthalmological examination and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Carla Marinelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Lucia Ziccardi and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Norrie disease. The disease is caused by variations in the NDP gene. Its prevalence is currently unknown. Inheritance is X-linked recessive. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, color vision testing, optical coherence tomography, ophthalmological examination and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Alessandra Zulian, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Lucia Ziccardi and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for Mendelian cataract (MC). MC is caused by variations in the AGK, BFSP1, BFSP2, CHMP4B, CRYAA, CRYAB, CRYBA1, CRYBA2, CRYBA4, CRYBB1, CRYBB2, CRYBB3, CRYGC, CRYGD, CRYGS, EPHA2, EYA1, FYCO1, FOXE3, FTL, GALK1, GCNT2, GJA3, GJA8, HSF4, LEMD2, LIM2, LSS, MAF, MIP, NHS, PITX3, PAX6, SIPA1L3, SLC16A12, TDRD7, UNC45B, VIM, VSX, and WFS1 genes. The overall prevalence of congenital forms is 71 per 100 000, whereas there is insufficient data to determine the prevalence of the juvenile and age-related forms. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, age of onset, family history, ophthalmological examination and slit-lamp examination. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Pamela Coppola, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Lucia Ziccardi and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy (DHRD). The disease has an autosomal dominant inheritance and is caused by variations in the EFEMP1 gene. There is insufficient data to establish the prevalence of DHRD. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Alice Bruson, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Lucia Ziccardi and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD). The disease has autosomal recessive inheritance, a prevalence of 1 per 67 000, and is caused by mutations in the CYP4V2 gene. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, electroretinography and optical coherence tomography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.