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Michal Dubovický, Eszter Császár, Kristína Melicherčíková, Marcela Kuniaková and Lucia Račková


An increasing amount of data suggests that depression is an inflammatory disease. Depressed patients have higher peripheral blood levels of inflammatory markers which have been shown to access the brain and interact with the pathophysiological domain known to be involved in depression. Furthermore, microglia activation may play an important role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression.

In BV-2 microglia cell line, the present study investigated the potential anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine, along with its potential influence on injury of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. Although venlafaxine showed only marginal influence on the majority of the pro-inflammatory parameters assessed (in particular NO release, phagocytosis and proliferation), it significantly suppressed superoxide production by the stimulated cells. In addition, venlafaxine exerted also a protective effect on mitochondrial membrane potential and lysosomes of the stimulated microglia.

In conclusion, our results suggest that although VEN might have only a marginal effect on major pro-inflammatory parameters of microglia, its inhibitory effect on superoxide generation can contribute to the prevention of harmful effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Moreover, the protective effect of VEN on viability of microglia can prevent a rapid reduction of these cells, thus avoiding limitations of several physiological processes in the brain and possibly also the progression of depression

Open access

Lucia Račková, Mária Cupáková, Anton Ťažký, Júlia Mičová, Emil Kolek and Daniela Košťálová


In traditional medicine, several medicinal plants or their extracts have been used to treat diabetes. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, known commonly as ginger, is consumed worldwide in cookeries as a spice and flavouring agent. It has been used as the spice and medicine for thousands of years. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of oxidative damage to pancreatic β cells. The free radical scavenging activities and composition of the isolated n-hexane and ethanolic extracts were confronted with their protective, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in INS-1E β cells. Unlike the n-hexane extract (exerting, paradoxically, stronger antiradical capacity), both low cytotoxicity and remarkable protective effects on β cell viability, followed by lowering oxidative stress markers were found for the ethanolic extract Zingiber officinale Rosc. The present study is the first pilot study to assess the protective potential of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of cytotoxic conditions imposed by diabetes in β cells.

Open access

Katarína Chovancová, Lucia Ráčková, Dagmar Veselá and Monika Zázrivcová


The paper presents results of synchronous contrastive study of fifteen most frequent Slovak full verbs and their French equivalents by the method of corpus analysis aimed at observation and comparison of their valency potential in relation to their semantic structure. The inventory of valency structures of Slovak verbs and their French equivalents shows not only differences, but also, to a great extent, identical semantic-syntactic connectivities. The main apport of the study lies in the contrastive research perspective and the interdisciplinary character on the crossroads of grammar, semantics, syntax, cognitive and corpus linguistics. Findings can be of use to linguists, terminologists, lexicographers, authors of textbooks and grammars, translators and interpreters, as well as to French-speaking learners of Slovak and Slovak students of French.

Open access

Nataša Mrvová, Martin Škandík, Štefan Bezek, Natália Sedláčková, Mojmír Mach, Zdenka Gaspárová, Dominika Luptáková, Ivan Padej and Lucia Račková


Synthetic pyridoindole-type substances derived from the lead compound stobadine represent promising agents in treatment of a range of pathologies including neurological disorders. The beneficial biological effects were suggested to be likely associated with their capacity to ameliorate oxidative damage.

In our study, the effect of supplementation with the derivative of stobadine, SMe1EC2, on ageing-related cognitive decline in rats was investigated. The 20-months-old male Wistar rats were administered SMe1EC2 at a low dose, 0.5 mg/kg, daily during eight weeks. Morris water maze test was performed to assess the spatial memory performances. The cell-based assays of capacity of SMe1EC2 to modulate proinflammatory generation of oxidants by microglia were also performed.

The rats treated with SMe1EC2 showed significantly increased path efficiency, significantly shorter time interval of successful trials and exerted also notably lower frequencies of clockwise rotations in the pool compared to non-supplemented aged animals. Mildly improved parameters included test durations, distances to reach the platform, time in periphery of the pool and overall rotations in the water maze. However, the pyridoindole SMe1EC2 did not show profound inhibitory effect on production of nitric oxide and superoxide by activated microglial cells.

In conclusion, our study suggests that pyridoindole SMe1EC2, at low doses administered chronically, can act as cognition enhancing agent in aged rats. The protective mechanism less likely involves direct modulation of proinflammatory and prooxidant state of microglia, the prominent mediators of neurotoxicity in brain ageing and neurodegeneration.