Protecting the qualitative aspect of the agricultural land is in the interest of European Union policies and Slovakia as well. The EU adopted in 2006 a Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection to ensure protection and sustainable use of land, including agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to analyze and evaluate legislation protecting agricultural land in the context of the implementation of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in Slovakia. The basic legislation for the protection of agricultural land in Slovakia is the Act No. 220/2004 Coll. on the conservation and use of agricultural land and amending Act No. 245/2003 Coll. concerning integrated pollution prevention and control and amending certain laws, as amended, which provides a basic framework for conservation of the agricultural land. In terms of preserving, agricultural land has significant importance in the Common Agricultural Policy -pillar I and II which stipulate cross-compliance requirements, requirements for agri-environmental measures for applicants for single area payment scheme, for applicants for support under agri-environmental measures respectively.
Agri-environment measures are a key element for the integration of environmental concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy. They are designed to encourage farmers to protect and enhance the environment on their farmland by paying them for the provision of environmental services. Rural Development Programme 2014 – 2020 introduced an agri-environmental measure for multifunctional field margins (biostrips on arable land), which contributes to increasing biodiversity, to protection of basic environmental elements and it also serves as prevention for climate change. Since so far no farmer asked the Agricultural Paying Agency for commitment, the objective of the paper was to assess the design and accuracy of calculation of the agri-environmental and climatic measure - the multifunctional field margins in the conditions of Slovakia. The research results show that the calculation methodology is incorrectly set and it does not compensate for the farmer’s loss on farm yields.
The protection of the qualitative aspects of agricultural land is in the interests of both Slovakia and the European Union. Several policy documents have emerged in the European Union over the last few years, however, they have not been legally binding, as the EU Member States refuse all binding legal acts in this area. Therefore, solving the problem of agricultural land protection is left to the exclusive competence of the EU Member States. On the other hand, problems related to agricultural land cross the borders of states and that is why the Department of Law, Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra submitted an international research project under the Erasmus + program, Key Action 3: Jean Monnet entitled “Central European Initiative on Agricultural Land Protection”. The aim is to strengthen the dialogue between key stakeholders in the protection of agricultural land in Central Europe what will have a positive impact on the achievement of the EU agri-environmental and food policy objectives.
Direct payments belong to one of the main supporting instruments of EU agricultural sector representing the support of farmers´ income. In the new programming period (2014-2020) there is a transition from full decoupling to targeting of direct payments. Strong emphasis will be given especially on environmental aspects representing by „greening“. The aim of the paper is to describe and review the Legal regulation of direct payments at both EU and Slovak republic level. Comparison of the amount of direct payments in 2007-2013 and 2014-2020 is also being presented. Finally selected problems in direct payments implementation are introduced and discussed
Agri-environmental measures are a key element for the integration of environmental concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy. They are designed to encourage farmers to protect and enhance the environment on their farmland by paying them for the provision of environmental services. Farmers commit themselves, for a minimum period of at least five years, to adopt environmentally friendly farming techniques that go beyond legal obligations. In return, farmers receive payments that provide compensation for additional costs and losses of income resulting from applying those environmentally friendly farming practices in line with the stipulations of agri-environmental contracts. Agri-environmental measures may be designed at national, regional or local level so that they can be adapted to the particular farming systems and environmental conditions, which vary greatly throughout the EU. This makes agri-environment a potentially precise tool for achieving environmental goals.
The soil protection has a long tradition in Slovakia. Slovakia has a good and strict legislation on the soil protection. It also includes protection against erosion and degradation. However, there is a certain gap in the legislation in addressing the relationship between the lost soil and the land ownership. It is not clear how the land ownership is changed with soil particles movement along the slope, on which erosion occurs. Even more uncertainty regarding the land ownership occurs if the soil is transferred to the watercourses or water reservoirs, where the soil is transformed into sediments. On the European level, sediment management is not covered by specific regulations. The sediment management is partially addressed in several European directives directly or indirectly. The current legislation in Slovakia is creating economic and legal barriers to the return of the soil from the rivers and the reservoir to its original owners. The paper deals with the current state of explaining the problem with the soil erosion and sediment transport in relation to the valid legislation in Slovakia and the European Union. Legislation addressing the erosion and sediment is not just based on land ownership but also on principles for protection of the environment as the transfer of harmful substances to the soil or water.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the oldest EU policy and is one of the supranational areas and policies of the European Union (EU). CAP introduced diverse legal and economic tools for comprehensive and smart restructuralisation of the Slovak agriculture and rural areas. With the purpose to improve the CAP implementation in Slovakia, the project “Effectiveness of Common Agricultural Policy implementation in Slovakia” (CAPE) was prepared and submitted by the Association of Agrarian and Environmental Lawyers. The project was approved by the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency and it has been granted from September 2019 (Decision Nr. 2019–1802/001.001, Project Nr. 611792–EPP–1–2019–1–SK–EPPJMO–SUPPA). The idea to submit project proposal aroused from the need to contribute to improving the Common Agricultural Policy implementation in Slovakia. The main aim of the project is to perform the interdisciplinary research in the field of the effectiveness of CAP implementation in Slovakia with the specific objectives to discuss and advise local, regional, national policymakers and decision–makers on different aspects of the CAP implementation, transfer the research results and the expertise to the practice and to disseminate the project outcomes among interested target groups and civil society.
In an increasingly urbanized world, the scarcity of space is a growing problem along with land consumption and soil sealing. To achieve sustainable development and sustainable land use, society has to resolve conflicts between residential, industrial, transport, commercial and green areas while creating a balance between social, economic and ecological targets. However, coordination of sustainable land use is a challenge for policymakers. The paper examines whether the withdrawal of land from the agricultural land fund leads to development, measured both by the increase in domestic entrepreneurial activity, as well as by the increase in foreign direct investments. The results are based on the analysis of panel data on the amount of land withdrawal, newly established firms and inward flow of FDI covering 41 administrative districts of Slovak Republic over 9 years (6 years in case of the FDI, due to the availability of data). Additionally, the spatial Durbin panel model was used to examine, whether land withdrawal and its non-agricultural use generate positive spillover effects on surrounding regions in terms of increased entrepreneurial activity and flow of FDI.
The Accession Treaty allowed the new Member States to temporarily establish a different system of payment subsidies in agriculture, compared to the system in force in the old Member States. It is a system of the so called Single Area Payment Scheme (SAPS). This system can be used in the Slovak Republic until the end of 2013. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the rules for the direct support of agriculture within the SAPS and its actual implementation in the period 2004 - 2013.
Protection of the functions and surface area of agricultural land should be the interest of every society and is an expression of the maturity of the country. The paper analyses historical development of the legal regulation on the protection of agricultural land in Slovakia since the establishment of Czechoslovakia i.e. from 1918 to the present, i.e. until 2017.