Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death among critically ill patients from the Intensive Care Units (ICU). After primary traumatic injuries, secondary complications occur, which are responsible for the progressive degradation of the clinical status in this type of patients. These include severe inflammation, biochemical and physiological imbalances and disruption of the cellular functionality. The redox cellular potential is determined by the oxidant/antioxidant ratio. Redox potential is disturbed in case of TBI leading to oxidative stress (OS). A series of agression factors that accumulate after primary traumatic injuries lead to secondary lesions represented by brain ischemia and hypoxia, inflammatory and metabolic factors, coagulopathy, microvascular damage, neurotransmitter accumulation, blood-brain barrier disruption, excitotoxic damage, blood-spinal cord barrier damage, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. A cascade of pathophysiological events lead to accelerated production of free radicals (FR) that further sustain the OS. To minimize the OS and restore normal oxidant/antioxidant ratio, a series of antioxidant substances is recommended to be administrated (vitamin C, vitamin E, resveratrol, N-acetylcysteine). In this paper we present the biochemical and pathophysiological mechanism of action of FR in patients with TBI and the antioxidant therapy available.
Introduction: Nosocomial infections represent one of the biggest challenges faced by clinicians in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Infections in ICU are most often very serious and represent often the cause of hospitalization in intensive care clinics.
Aim of the study: This paper presents the incidence of nosocomial infections, and the sensitivity to antibiotics encountered in our ICU. Material and Methods: This prospective study was conducted for two years at the Clinic of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Emergency County Hospital “Pius Brinzeu” Timisoara, Romania. All patients admitted to the ICU were analyzed in terms of signs and symptoms of bacterial infections.
Results: A total of 1081 microbiological reports were recorded. Among these, 635 (58.70 %) represented infections in the respiratory tract, 201 (18.60 %) in the bloodstream, 100 (9.30 %) in genitourinary tract, and 10 (0.90 %) in the central nervous system. The top five most frequently identified pathogen in microbiological reports are Klebsiella sp (17.60 %), Acinetobacter sp (14.20 %), Proteus mirabilis (13.80 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.90 %), Staphylococcus aureus - MSSA (12.80%).
Conclusions: In order to choose empirical treatment, international guidelines should be consulted according to each pathology and adapted to the sensitivity encountered in the microbiology reports of the Critical Care Unit.