Julijan Malacko, Veroljub Stanković, Emilija Marković and Ljiljana Arsić
The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of a series of processes which a leader in sport has to design and realize. The necessity of leadership presence (guidance) in sport can be found in the dynamic polyvalent and multidisciplinary development of contemporary human society, with the added note that management is more closely related to efficiency, and leadership with effectiveness and change. Based on the partial models of the structural and organizational system of sport constructed and presented so far, and the current global analyses of sports management and marketing, quality management, information, communication, scientific and training technology, as well as the analysis of individual models and their mutual interactions, we can conclude that the transformation processes which are in sport defined by applying increasingly more modern technologies, and in the world at large take place in a continued, dynamic and intense manner in sports organizations, should lead to the most efficient, optimal and effective modeling of increasingly newer and more modern creations, conceptions, projections and strategies, so that they could as a consequence lead to the strengthening of the role of specific sports and business functions.
Snježana Mirković, Katarina Rajković, Sanja Jeremić, Marijana Gavrilović, Ljiljana Tomić, Valentina Arsić Arsenijević and Boro Krstić
The objective of this paper was to assess the antiradical effectiveness of propolis extract (PE) based on 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) bleaching assay kinetic profile. The kinetic profile of scavenging DPPH• for PE exhibited one kinetic period characterized by one kinetic constant. The second-order rate constant (k2) for the oxidation of PE by DPPH•, determined for the first time in this study, was 0.17 dm3g−1s−1. The obtained k2 value was compared to that of synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts used in the food industry. Kinetic analysis of PE antiradical effectiveness showed that the k2 was within the range values for natural colorants of fruit extracts and should be considered as a fast acting natural antioxidant source. The k2 parameter indicates the extent of oxidation inhibition that is based on all of the kinetic profiles of DPPH bleaching rather than single point measurements. For this reason, the kinetic analysis should become a necessary step for more precise antioxidative characterization of propolis.