During the cold semester , most representative of climate risks are the thermal ones, specifically, on the base of a depression area, apprearance of thermal inversions. Amid this feature mentioned, the coldest temperatures were recorded in the lowlands,in the hearth's depression,as the municipe Câmpulung Moldovenesc, here being registered and the lowest temperature from the area studied,-31.7°C. All these thermal inversions that occur in transitional periods (spring and autumn) are producing the early frosts,late respectively, these being the most damaging for local agriculture. This stability of the atmosphere, in conjunction with cold air, which is garrisoned on the’s hearth depression, leads to atmospheric pollution with pollutants, resulting from transport and heating, because we are talking about an area in woodland, and consequently, wood is the main source of heating, especially in outlying areas of the city Câmpulung Moldovenesc,where court houses predominate, with their own heating systems.
Hail is one of the most damaging weather phenomena. Inflicted damage affects mostly agriculture, but also human settlements. The effects produced are mainly due to the size of the hailstones and the amount of fallen ice and, of course, to the vulnerability of the territory in which it occurs. The average number of hail days in Moldova increases from less than 1 day / year in the Barlad Plateau to over 6 days a year on the high mountain peaks. Studies at national or regional level in Romania have not addressed the problem of trajectories of hail cells with potential of generating hailstorms. In addition to literature references, weather data from the ground, synoptic maps and satellite images for the warm seasons of the two years have been used. In the two observation seasons (15 April-15 October) of the years 2016 and 2018 for the analyzed territory, a number of days with similar convective cells were observed, 51, respectively 53. The direction of southwest movement (33%) dominated, followed by the northwest direction.
Blocking anticyclonic circulations from Europe are provoking climatic episodes responsible for discomfort, human and financial loses. During the summer, these episodes are known for prolonged droughts and maximum temperatures often exceeding 35 °C to 40 °C. In the cold season, the rainfalls are close to 0 while the daily minimum temperatures are low under the average period. For this study, we used a synoptic classification which is available especially for Central Europe but works similarly for Romanian territory too. We aim to follow what kind of climatic conditions these circulations are producing in Romania during their presence in Europe. ECA&D daily gridded climatic dataset was used in this study. The study period lasts from 1961 to 2012. We used the minimum and maximum daily temperatures as well the rainfall quantities recorded. Since the output volume of data was too high, we aggregated the results into yearly multiseasonal average. In order to classify the synoptic patterns as blocking anticyclones, we used two synoptic situations from Hess-Brezowsky defined as Anticyclone High Central (HM) and High British Isles (HB). We calculated the thermic anomalies as well the rainfall quantities recorded in Romania during the presence of these circulations in central Europe. The results shows a perspective over the synoptic conditions in Romania during the presence of the above mentioned synoptic types in Central Europe.
Temperature inversions are characterized by negative vertical thermal gradients (Donciu, 1953, Ţâştea, 1965, Bogdan, 1971, Neacşa, Frimescu, 1981). The most frequent manifestation is in the depression areas because in addition to radiative cooling and better possibility to store cold air invasion, it also takes place the accumulation and of air flow of cold air due to gravity. The area south of the Carpathians, shows depression features, gaining titles like: carpathianbalkanic bucket (Bălescu, 1962), carpathian-balkanic sink (Ion-Bordei, N. 1988). In this space the inversions occupy the entire area, proof being the values from low altitude stations similar to those from mountain peaks, while the middle part of the slope remains wormer.
In the contemporary period, the most important element in sustaining and developing the society, under all its aspects, is represented by energy. Due to the fact that in society consumption is increasing, the actual preoccupation is to reduce the energy consumption and also to find clean, alternative sources to produce energy. The theme of this article is directed towards the concepts of increased availability and energetic independency and concerns estimations over the wind potential in certain areas of Central Moldavian Plateau. For this purpose there were analyzed genetic factors of the wind in the analyzed area and those parameters of wind speed, useful to the justification of the wind potential study. The obtained results confirm the fact that in Central Moldavian Plateau, in many areas, especially those of high altitude, are favorable conditions to use wind energy. Along with the remoteness from the Eastern Carpathians and the proximity of the Black Sea, the conditions become more and more favorable. Unfortunately, the lack of meteorological stations on the top of hills (besides the Barnova station, situated in the woods). Increased wind speed in the meaning of what was stated, was approved only on high valleys and upper terraces in the main valleys, especially on the Prut.
This paper aims to present the evolution of the meteorological terminology, from the 17th century Grigore Ureche’s chronicle and bishop Amfilohie Hotiniul's manuscript on Physics (Moldavia, late 18th Century) to the mid 19th century writings of Teodor Stamati (Moldova) and Julius Barasch (Wallachia), also considering pop science literature, newspapers, such as “Albina Românească” and weather superstitions published in various calendars, and disputed by intelectuals like Mihail Kogălniceanu.
In the present work has been studied weather types that have characterized the North of Moldavia over the last 20 years and the role of synoptic conditions which stood behind them. In this study, we will show the role of airsynoptical conditions which give the look of the weather characterized during this period, a frequency of types of circulations to highlight a general trend, the induced effects on air temperature and in the weather and climate risks, that resulted (scattered thunderstorms phenomena associated with a high termic contrast, dryness, freezing phenomena, early, in the final of August and September and later, in April-May.
Component part of the Carpathian-Danubian-Pontic space, the interfluve area between Prut and Dniester is subject to the regional process of climate evolution and change. In what regards the concept of human-influenced pedogenesis, the role of the biological factor is significantly reduced. As a consequence the direction and intensity of the elementary landscape and pedogenetic processes are determined by the relations between climate and the geomorphological factor. In the conditions of a relative stability of the geomorphological factor, the determining role is held by climate. To this is added soil vulnerability to the implications of climate changes, determined by the degree of soil physical degradation but also by a series of intrinsic and external (drainage) factors. This implies the idea of the control and management of the landscape and pedogenetic implications of climate changes by improving soil physical characteristics.
The air temperature variability and locally global warming impact, in the North Eastern Carpathians, have analyzed, namely in the high area of the Massif Rarău, as the environmental implications of these changes. Also taking into account the touristic potential of this area, some aspects of thermal regime change have been highlighted, with implications for tourism. For this study the string climate data have been used from the meteorological station Rarău, currently belonging to the Faculty of Geography and Geology, University Alexandru Ioan Cuza. The yearly average of air temperature at the meteorological station Rarău was 2.5°C over the period 1958-2015. The annual variations were from -1.3°C in comparition with the annual average in 1980 to +1.7°C in 2015. The lowest monthly average was in January, 6.7°C, the highest in July, 11.8°C and annual average amplitude was 18.5°C.
This study is based on 3 years of hourly observations of global solar radiation (2014-2016), at a new weather station installed in the region of Central Moldavian Plateau, at Mădârjac (47.05°N, 27.25°E, 270 m). The main characteristics of annual, monthly and daily regime of global radiation were emphasized using for comparison similar data from Iașioficial weather station. Smaller annual amount of global solar radiation than those observed in previous studies were observed, reaching 4734 MJ/m2 in Iași and 4454 MJ/m2 in Mădârjac. An altidudinal gradient of global solar radiation close to 140 MJ/m2 was identified for the hilly region of Moldova. Despite the overall higher values in Iași, 30% of days indicates higher values of this parameter at Mădârjac weather station. These results can be used for the evaluation of the photo-voltaic potential in the region, but also to understand the altitudinal differences of solar radiation in the hilly region in Moldavia, since the only long-range actinometric stations from this part of Romania, Iași and Galați, are located at low altitudes.