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Open access

Guodong Zha, Bochu Wang, Junyu Liu, Jie Yan, Liqing Zhu and Xingyan Yang


The gravity-induced mechanical touch stimulus can affect plant root architecture. Mechanical touch responses of plant roots are an important aspect of plant root growth and development. Previous studies have reported that Arabidopsis TCH1-3 genes are involved in mechano-related events, how-ever, the physiological functions of TCH1-3 genes in Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses remain unclear. In the present study, we applied an inclined hard agar plate method to produce mechanical touch stimulus, and provided evidence that altered mechanical environment could influence root growth. Furthermore, tch1-3 Arabidopsis mutants were investigated on inclined agar surfaces to explore the functions of TCH1-3 genes on Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses. The results showed that two tch2 mutants, cml24-2 and cml24-4, exhibited significantly reduced root length, biased skewing, and decreased density of lateral root. In addition, primary root length and density of lateral root of tch3 (cml12-2) was significantly decreased on inclined agar surfaces. This study indicates that the tch2 and tch3 mutants are hypersensitive to mechanical touch stimulus, and TCH2 (CML24-2 and CML24-4) and TCH3 (CML12-2) genes may participate in the mechanical touch response of Arabidopsis roots.

Open access

Li-Qing Wang, Heng-Jun Zhou, Cai-Fei Pan, Sheng-Mei Zhu and Lin-Mei Xu


Background: Secondary brain edema is a serious complication of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Recently, it has been reported that proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of brain edema during HE.

Objectives: Observe the dynamic expressions of brain and plasma proinflammatory cytokines in encephalopathy rats, and evaluate the relationship between proinflammatory cytokines and brain edema.

Methods: Acute HE rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) in 24 hours intervals for two consecutive days. Then, clinical symptom and stages of hepatic encephalopathy, motor activity counts, index of liver function, and brain water content were observed. The dynamic expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in plasma and brain tissues were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Typical clinical performances of hepatic encephalopathy were occurred in all TAA-administrated rats. The TAA rats showed lower motor activity counts and higher the index of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and ammonia than those in control rats. Brain water content was significantly enhanced in TAA rats compared with the control. The expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF- α in plasma and brain significantly increased in TAA rats. In addition, the expressions of cerebral proinflammatory cytokines were positively correlated with brain water content but negatively correlated with motor activity counts.Conclusion: Inflammation was involved in the pathogenesis of brain edema during TAA-induced HE.