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Open access

Lin Hua, Lin Li, Ping Zhou and Zheng Yang

Summary

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex trait influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Geographic isolation and natural selection present fundamental forces to diversify genetic backgrounds during human evolution and migration. In this study, we attempted to assess whether human geographic isolation affects the genetic predisposition of CAD.

Methods: We first included 21 genetic association studies of the methyl enetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism C677T and CAD from 16 geographic regions consisting of 9,008 participants and performed a meta-ana - lysis based on the distributions of these studies.

ResultsIt was found that the positive signals for the association of C677T with CAD were mainly enriched in the regions of northern Afri ca (pooled OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.45-2.06, Z=3.17, P<0.0001) and India (pooled OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.30- 2.00, Z=4.38, P<0.0001). To validate the potential geographic effects on the genetic polymorphism of CAD, we then carried out two additional metaanalyses involving 30 and 13 studies on genetic associations of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/ deletion (I/D) and APOA5 gene T1131C polymorphisms for CAD consisting of 22,190 and 12,322 participants, respectively. We found that the associations of T1131C with CAD were concentrated in East Asia (pooled OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.22-1.49, Z=6.00, P<10-5), whereas the associations of I/D polymorphism with CAD were clustering in Europe and America (pooled OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.04-1.39, Z=2.49, P=0.01) and Turkey (pooled OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.05-1.69, Z=2.40, P=0.02).

Conclusions: Our results showed that geographic isolation might have potential effects on the genetic polymorphism of human complex diseases, such as CAD.

Open access

Yan-Yun Yu, Yan Lin and Kai Li

ABSTRACT

A new method for ship Inner Shell optimization, which is called Parametric Inner Shell Optimization Method (PISOM), is presented in this paper in order to improve both hull performance and design efficiency of transport ship. The foundation of PISOM is the parametric Inner Shell Plate (ISP) model, which is a fully-associative model driven by dimensions. A method to create parametric ISP model is proposed, including geometric primitives, geometric constraints, geometric constraint solving etc. The standard optimization procedure of ship ISP optimization based on parametric ISP model is put forward, and an efficient optimization approach for typical transport ship is developed based on this procedure. This approach takes the section area of ISP and the other dominant parameters as variables, while all the design requirements such as propeller immersion, fore bottom wave slap, bridge visibility, longitudinal strength etc, are made constraints. The optimization objective is maximum volume of cargo oil tanker/cargo hold, and the genetic algorithm is used to solve this optimization model. This method is applied to the optimization of a product oil tanker and a bulk carrier, and it is proved to be effective, highly efficient, and engineering practical.

Open access

Lin Li and Pingping Zhang

Abstract

Unbounded solutions for the iterative-difference equation

f2(x)=λf(x+a)+μx,x,
have been considered in [Continuous solutions of an iterative-difference equation and Brillouët problem, Publ. Math. Debrecen, 78 (2011), 613–624], where λ, μ, a are real constants. In this paper, we continue to study the solutions not being included there, and further give the convex and concave ones. Finally, continuous solutions of this equation with an extra item were also given, which continuously depend on the parameter a.

Open access

Zhongguo Zhou and Lin Li

Abstract

In this paper, the high accuracy mass-conserved splitting domain decomposition method for solving the parabolic equations is proposed. In our scheme, the time extrapolation and local multi-point weighted average schemes are used to approximate the interface fluxes on interfaces of sub-domains, while the interior solutions are computed by one dimension high-order implicit schemes in sub-domains. The important feature is that the developed scheme keeps mass conservation and are of second-order convergent in time and fourth-order convergent in space. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence.

Open access

Lin Li, Jing Dong, Dezhang Lu, Sheng Jiang, Dongqi Lin and Honggang Fan

Abstract

Cats were injected with 2.4 mg/kg of tiletamine-zolazepam, 0.36 mg/kg of xylazine, and 0.8 mg/kg of tramadol, then blood was collected from their peripheral veins at 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 168 h after the injection. Before injection, the same cats were used as control group (0 h). Biochemical and haematological parameters were measured. The results revealed that the combination of the compounds produced good immobilisation, with minimal changes over time in biochemical and haematological parameters, which were within biologically acceptable limits.

Open access

E Cheng-Guo, Quan-Lin Li and Shiyong Li

Abstract

Service systems and their cooperation are one of the most important and hot topics in management and information sciences. To design a reasonable allocation mechanism of service systems is the key issue in the cooperation of service systems. In this paper, we systematically introduce the interval Shapley value as cost allocation of cooperative interval games 〈N, V〉 arising from cooperation in a multi-server service system, and provide an explicit expression for the interval Shapley value of cooperative interval games 〈N, V〉. We construct an interval game 〈N, W〉 of a service system which shares the same value for the grand coalition with the original interval game, by using the characteristic function which is dominated by the function of the original interval game. Finally, we prove that the interval game 〈N, W〉 is concave, which means that the interval Shapley value of the interval game 〈N, W〉 is in the interval core of this interval game, and illustrate this conclusion by using numerical examples.

Open access

Mukesh Prasad, Yu-Ting Liu, Dong-Lin Li, Chin-Teng Lin, Rajiv Ratn Shah and Om Prakash Kaiwartya

Abstract

A novel data knowledge representation with the combination of structure learning ability of preprocessed collaborative fuzzy clustering and fuzzy expert knowledge of Takagi- Sugeno-Kang type model is presented in this paper. The proposed method divides a huge dataset into two or more subsets of dataset. The subsets of dataset interact with each other through a collaborative mechanism in order to find some similar properties within each-other. The proposed method is useful in dealing with big data issues since it divides a huge dataset into subsets of dataset and finds common features among the subsets. The salient feature of the proposed method is that it uses a small subset of dataset and some common features instead of using the entire dataset and all the features. Before interactions among subsets of the dataset, the proposed method applies a mapping technique for granules of data and centroid of clusters. The proposed method uses information of only half or less/more than the half of the data patterns for the training process, and it provides an accurate and robust model, whereas the other existing methods use the entire information of the data patterns. Simulation results show the proposed method performs better than existing methods on some benchmark problems.

Open access

Hongping Li, Lin Chen, Shuai Liu, Changsheng Li, Jian Meng and Zhongchang Wang

Abstract

Chemical doping represents one of the most effective ways in engineering electronic structures of anatase TiO2 for practical applications. Here, we investigate formation energies, geometrical structures, and electronic properties of Si-, F-doped and Si/F co-doped anatase TiO2 by using spin-polarized density functional theory calculation. We find that the co-doped TiO2 is thermodynamically more favorable than the Si- and F-doped TiO2- Structural analysis shows that atomic impurity varies crystal constants slightly. Moreover, all the three doped systems show a pronounced narrowing of band gap by 0.33 eV for the F-doped TiO2, 0.17 eV for the Si-doped TiO2, and 0.28 eV for the Si/F-co-doped TiO2, which could account for the experimentally observed redshift of optical absorption edge. Our calculations suggest that the Si/F-co-doping represents an effective way in tailoring electronic structure and optical properties of anatase TiO2.