Online reviews on tourism attractions provide important references for potential tourists to choose tourism spots. The main goal of this study is conducting sentiment analysis to facilitate users comprehending the large scale of the reviews, based on the comments about Chinese attractions from Japanese tourism website 4Travel.
Different statistics- and rule-based methods are used to analyze the sentiment of the reviews. Three groups of novel statistics-based methods combining feature selection functions and the traditional term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) method are proposed. We also make seven groups of different rules-based methods. The macro-average and micro-average values for the best classification results of the methods are calculated respectively and the performance of the methods are shown.
We compare the statistics-based and rule-based methods separately and compare the overall performance of the two method. According to the results, it is concluded that the combination of feature selection functions and weightings can strongly improve the overall performance. The emotional vocabulary in the field of tourism (EVT), kaomojis, negative and transitional words can notably improve the performance in all of three categories. The rule-based methods outperform the statistics-based ones with a narrow advantage.
Two limitations can be addressed: 1) the empirical studies to verify the validity of the proposed methods are only conducted on Japanese languages; and 2) the deep learning technology is not been incorporated in the methods.
The results help to elucidate the intrinsic characteristics of the Japanese language and the influence on sentiment analysis. These findings also provide practical usage guidelines within the field of sentiment analysis of Japanese online tourism reviews.
Our research is of practicability. Currently, there are no studies that focus on the sentiment analysis of Japanese reviews about Chinese attractions.
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is associated with endothelial dysfunction as an early event of generalized atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether steatotic hepatocytes influence endothelial function directly. Objective: Explore the influence of hepatocyte steatosis on the function of endothelial cells. Methods: Oleic and palmitic acid (2:1 mixture, final concentration: 1 mM for 24 hours) was used to induce a normal adult hepatocyte strain (L-02) for transformation into steatosis cells. This was followed by oil red O staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for verification. The culture solution of steatotic L-02 cells was filtered and collected, and added into the culture substrate of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The expression of vascular cellular adhesion molecule -1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin in HUVECs was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays. The apoptosis and proliferation of HUVECs was determined using flow cytometry. The experimental results were compared with the controls. Results: Oil red O staining and microscopic observation showed that the cytoplasm of induced L-02 cells contained a large amount of red lipid droplets. TEM results showed that the cytoplasm had lipid accumulation, swelling mitochondria, fewer cristae, and reduced number of rough endoplasmic reticula accompanied with degranulation. However, these changes were not observed in normal L-02 cells. As to the group of HUVECs treated by the filtrate of steatosis L-02 cells, the mRNA and protein expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin was higher than that in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (p <0.01). No significant difference was found when HUVECs apoptosis and proliferation were assessed by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Secretion from steatotic hepatocytes could boost the expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin in endothelial cells, indicating that hepatocyte steatosis could induce endothelial cell dysfunction. The proliferation and apoptosis of endothelial cells did not change, suggesting that hepatocyte steatosis had no influence on the viability of endothelial cells under this condition.
Based on the simplified fish motion model, a robot fish which could detect the oil leakage point of pipeline was designed by the method of single-joint driving. The Hawkeye OV7725 was used to design the image acquisition module to obtain the current movement of the fish and the current pipeline situation and the collected data was processed for making the relevant decisions to achieve the direction of movement control with the STM32 microcontroller. On the basis of binarization image centroid method, the image recognition algorithm was studied. By using the coordinates of the white point in the two-dimensional array, a linear regression equation which can reflect the distribution trend of the white point in a frame image was designed and the motion direction of the current robot could be detected. Since the linear regression equation converge to the characteristics of discrete data points, the oil leakage point inside the white area of the image could be detected. Experiment results showed that the robot fish can effectively complete the oil spill point detection task.
Multifunction elastic warp-knitted fabrics were fabricated on a crochet machine with the use of metal composite yarns/viscose yarn and bamboo polyester/ crisscross-section polyester hybrid yarns as the front face and back face of the knitted fabric structure, respectively. We investigated the effect of the blend ratio of bamboo charcoal/ crisscross-section polyester multiply yarns on the fabric's moisture comfort properties, such as water vapour transmission (WVT), water evaporation rate (WER), and water absorbency. The results showed that blending ratio significantly influenced WVT and WER. Moreover, antibacterial activity of the elastic warp- knitted fabric was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in accordance with AATCC 90-2011. Finally, the extension- stress value curves were used to analyse the elastic stretching property, and the fabric exhibited greater breaking elongation and lower stress value in the walewise than in the weft direction.
Background: Secondary brain edema is a serious complication of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Recently, it has been reported that proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of brain edema during HE.
Objectives: Observe the dynamic expressions of brain and plasma proinflammatory cytokines in encephalopathy rats, and evaluate the relationship between proinflammatory cytokines and brain edema.
Methods: Acute HE rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) in 24 hours intervals for two consecutive days. Then, clinical symptom and stages of hepatic encephalopathy, motor activity counts, index of liver function, and brain water content were observed. The dynamic expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in plasma and brain tissues were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: Typical clinical performances of hepatic encephalopathy were occurred in all TAA-administrated rats. The TAA rats showed lower motor activity counts and higher the index of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and ammonia than those in control rats. Brain water content was significantly enhanced in TAA rats compared with the control. The expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF- α in plasma and brain significantly increased in TAA rats. In addition, the expressions of cerebral proinflammatory cytokines were positively correlated with brain water content but negatively correlated with motor activity counts.Conclusion: Inflammation was involved in the pathogenesis of brain edema during TAA-induced HE.