The Significance of Urinary Markers in the Evaluation of Diabetic Nephropathy
Oxidative stress is considered to be a unifying link between diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications, including nephropathy (DN). The aim of this study was to determine the parameters of oxidative injury of lipids and proteins as well as the activity of ectoenzymes in the urine of DN patients. The study included 40 individuals: 10 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria (DMT2-MIA), 10 type 2 diabetic patients with macroalbuminuria (DMT2-MAA), 10 patients with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria (DMT1-MIA) and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (control). In the urine we determined TBA reactive substances (TBARS), reactive carbonyl groups (RCG), and the activity of ectoenzymes N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), plasma cell differentiation antigen (PC-1), aminopeptidase N (APN) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV). A higher concentration of TBARS in the urine was found in DMT2-MIA and DMT1-MIA, compared to the control group (p<0.001 and P<0.05). The urine concentration of RCD shows similar results with a significant elevation in the groups with DMT2-MAA and DMT1-MIA, compared to the DMT2-MIA (p<0.001) and control group (p<0.001). Activities of NAG, APN and DPPIV were significantly higher in the urine of DMT2-MAA, compared to the control (p<0.01). The activity of PC-1 was slightly increased in that group, but not significantly. In conclusion, the level of oxidative stress markers and activities of brush border ectoenzymes in the urine may be a useful non-invasive and easily repeatable test in DN.