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  • Author: Liliana Rytel x
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Bisphenol A (BPA) is a substance commonly used in the production of plastics. Previous studies have described that it shows multidirectional harmful effects on the living organism. It is known that BPA causes liver damage, but knowledge about the roles of intrahepatic nerves in these mechanisms is extremely scanty. On the other hand, the exact roles of some neuronal substances in the nervous structures located in the liver still remain unknown. One of such substances, which is allocated a role in the stimulation of cell survival is neuregulin 1 (NRG-1). The aim of the present studies was to investigate the distribution of NRG-1 -like immunoreactive (NRG-1-LI) nerves in the liver in physiological conditions and under the influence of various doses of BPA using routine double immunofluorescence staining. The results (for the first time) show the presence of NRG-1 in the intrahepatic nerves, and co-localization of NGR-1 with neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Moreover, it has been observed that high doses of BPA increases the density of NRG-1-LI intrahepatic nerves and the degree of co-localization of NRG-1 with VIP. These observations suggest that NRG-1 located in intrahepatic nerves may play functions in processes connected with liver damage and/or regeneration under the impact of BPA.


Introduction: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a substance widely used in industry for the production of polycarbonates and epoxy resins used in packaging and containers for beverages, contact lenses, compact discs (CDs), window panes, and many other elements. This compound belongs to the group of polyphenols and xenoestrogens commonly found in the human environment. What we know about BPA is still insufficient to enable us to protect our health against its adverse effects, and current knowledge of the influence of BPA on erythroblastic cell lines in bone marrow is rather fragmentary. The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of two doses of BPA (0.05 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per day) on myeloid haematopoiesis.

Material and Methods: During this experiment, the number of all types of cells in the erythroblastic cell line was evaluated in porcine bone marrow before and after BPA administration.

Results: The obtained results clearly indicate changes in haematopoietic activity of the bone marrow, which was demonstrated by a decrease in erythroblastic cell line production in both experimental groups. The haematological effects of the bone marrow changes were anaemia, caused by a number of erythrocytes which was depressed due to their immaturity, and a significant decrease in mean cellular volume in both groups.

Conclusion: The harmful effect of high and low doses of BPA on haematopoietic processes was proved.


Introduction: Statins are pharmacological agents commonly used to lower serum cholesterol level. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effect of the statin simvastatin on thrombopoiesis in the porcine model because it is the closest to the human one regarding physiological and genetic similarities.

Material and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 32 pigs randomly divided into two equal groups: control and experimental. The pigs were treated for 28 and 56 days with simvastatin in a dose of 40 mg per day per animal. Cytological evaluation of bone marrow smears was performed to assess the average number of all types of cells during thrombopoiesis as was analysis of haematological parameters to assess PLT and MPV.

Results: During the course of the experiment statistically significant changes in the number of promegakaryocytes were observed. Other parameters also showed some fluctuations during the study. However, these changes were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The obtained results clearly indicate a toxic influence of simvastatin on the process of thrombopoiesis and prove that statins reduce mean platelet volume, thus affecting the process of clot formation through the period of administration in a duration-dependent manner.



Simvastatin is a substance which is commonly used as a medicine to reduce cholesterol level. Unfortunately, it shows numerous side effects. Simvastatin affects various internal organs, and among other detriments to health may cause persistent muscle weakness, osteolytic processes, headaches, and rashes. Until now knowledge of the influence of simvastatin on bone marrow cells has been rather scant and fragmentary.

Material and Methods

During this experiment the numbers of all types of cells in the leukocytic system of porcine bone marrow were evaluated after 28 and 56 days of oral administration of simvastatin at a dose of 40 mg/day/animal.


Simvastatin caused an increase in the number of all types of cells in the leukocytic system, and the most visible fluctuations concerned promyelocytes.


Observations obtained during the present study indicated that the results of the action of simvastatin on porcine bone marrow differ from those observed in other mammal species, including human. This may be due to various metabolic pathways within the bone marrow in the particular species, but the exact mechanisms of these actions are unknown at the present time.