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  • Author: Lilian Tzivian x
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Previous studies have analysed the need to measure learners’ readiness for online learning. In the framework of education reform in Latvia, by the end of 2021 the National Centre for Education will implement online courses for all school teachers. However, there is a lack of studies investigating teachers-as-learners’ readiness to study online in Latvia. The aim of the study was to assess Latvian teachers’ readiness to study online with focus on the differences of respondents’ socio-demographic or professional characteristics. 1092 teachers from 100 schools filled in the self-evaluation survey form online. Statistically significant differences were found in all subscales of the survey. Differences in digital skills and in readiness to study online were found at all education levels by respondents’ gender, age group or place of living. Younger respondents, males or city inhabitants showed higher rates. E-learning course should be customized, taking into account learners’ socio-demographic parameters and online learning readiness rate.


Low compliance to a prescribed Coumadin treatment can result in negative health outcomes. In this study we aimed to evaluate risk factors affecting patient compliance to Coumadin. For this purpose, two study phases were performed: Phase 1: a retrospective eight-year follow-up of databases from health care services; and Phase 2: a cross-sectional study with telephone interviews. A Total Compliance Index was constructed using the number of Coumadin purchases (40%), international standardised ratio (INR) tests (40%), and average INR values (20%). Multiple models for the Total Compliance Index were constructed using socio-demographic, treatment-related, and health care utilisation variables, use of drugs, patient-physician relationships and patient’s quality of life. 78.5 ± 3.4% of patients in the total population were non-compliant in the retrospective phase of the study, and 53.2% in the second, cross-sectional phase. Total Compliance Index was significantly associated with older age, number of doctor visits, and drugs from group C. We suggest that the Total Compliance Index for other drugs can be utilised as well.