Komuniciranje v Zdravstvu: Novinarsko Poročanje na Primeru Onkološkega Inštituta Ljubljana
Uvod: Človek že od nekdaj postavlja zdravje med svoje najvišje vrednote, zato si želi, da je o zdravju tudi ustrezno informiran. Zdravstveno sporočanje je zato zelo pomemben del promocije ali krepitve zdravja, glavni vir informacij za laično javnost pa so množični mediji. Z raziskavo smo želeli dobiti osnovni vpogled v vrsto zdravstvenih tem, ki prevladujejo v slovenskih dnevnih medijih.
Metode: V prispevku smo z vsebinskim pregledom in analizo poročanja izbranih slovenskih dnevnih medijev v letu 2009 ugotavljali, kakšno je razmerje med objavami o strokovnem, zdravstvenem delu Onkološkega inštituta Ljubljana in objavami o poslovnem, tehničnem in organizacijskem delovanju inštituta. Za analizo smo uporabili test hi-kvadrat in logistično regresijo.
Rezultati: V letu 2009 je bilo v izbranih dnevnih medijih skupaj 324 strokovnih in poslovno-organizacijskih objav na temo Onkološki inštitut Ljubljana. Od tega je bilo 70,4 % objav poslovno-organizacijskih, strokovnih objav pa 29,6 %. V modelu, v katerem smo hkrati upoštevali vrsto medija in njegovo usmeritev oziroma programsko zasnovo, vrsta medija ni bila statistično pomemben napovedni dejavnik, zelo pomemben napovedni dejavnik pa je bila usmeritev medija Obeti za strokovno objavo so bili 6,16-krat večji v medijih, ki niso pretežno komercialno usmerjeni (p=0,003).
Zaključek: Rezultati naše raziskave so potrdili ugotovitev, da je poročanje medijev v Sloveniji usmerjeno predvsem na poslovno-organizacijsko delovanje Onkološkega inštituta Ljubljana. Glede na naraščajoče zanimanje javnosti in nato tudi medijev o zdravju in zdravstvu bi bile smiselne nadaljnje raziskave o tem, kakšen je trend poročanja slovenskih medijev o zdravstvu ter kakšen vpliv imajo zdravstvene organizacije na to poročanje.
Vpliv Temperature na Troposferski Ozon na Goriškem
Uvod: Z raziskavo smo želeli ugotoviti, pri kateri temperaturi se na Goriškem pojavljajo koncentracije ozona, ki pomembno vplivajo na zdravje ljudi, in oceniti vpliv temperature na stopnjo onesnaženosti zraka z ozonom.
Metode: Uporabili smo podatke Agencije RS za okolje o povprečnih urnih koncentracijah ozona in temperature za leta 2002-2006 za Novo Gorico. Najprej smo iz 42.469 največjih 8-urnih dnevnih povprečij ocenili stopnjo onesnaženosti zraka z ozonom in določili temperaturo, pri kateri se pojavljajo zdravju škodljive koncentracije ozona. Nato smo za skupno 39.903 urnih obdobij z metodo linearne korelacije in regresije analizirali stopnjo oz. obliko povezanosti med povprečno urno koncentracijo ozona in temperaturo zraka v različnih temperaturnih območjih.
Rezultati: Na Goriškem so se pojavljale koncentracije ozona s pomembnim vplivom na zdravje pri temperaturi zraka 30 °C in več. Ob temperaturi zraka, nižji od 17 °C, se je pri porastu temperature za 1 °C koncentracija ozona zvišala v povprečju za 1,2 μg/m3 (povezanost je bila razmeroma šibka; r=0,233). Ob temperaturi zraka od vključno 17 °C se je pri porastu temperature za 1 °C koncentracija ozona zvišala povprečno za 6,0 μg/m3 (povezanost med spremenljivkama je bila razmeroma močna; r=0,681), medtem ko se je v območju od vključno 30 °C dalje pri porastu temperature zraka za 1 °C zvišala povprečno za 6,7 μg/m3 (povezanost je bila zmerna; r=0,391).
Zaključek: Temperatura pomembno vpliva na stopnjo onesnaženosti zraka z ozonom na Goriškem. Vpliv se z naraščanjem temperature veča, vendar pri temperaturi zraka 30 °C in več na porast koncentracije ozona vplivajo predvsem drugi dejavniki, ki pogojujejo nastanek ozona, in ne temperatura. Pri tem igrajo pomembno vlogo močnejši zahodni in jugozahodni vetrovi, ki prinesejo onesnažen zrak iz Padske nižine.
Kakovost Življenja in Uživanje Alkohola: Pregled Literature
Uvod: Koncept kakovosti življenja smo uporabili za oceno posledic uživanja alkohola. Namen sistematičnega pregleda literature s področja kakovosti življenja in uživanja alkohola je bil opredeliti teme, ki so bile na tem področju raziskovane, in metodologijo, ki so jo avtorji uporabili.
Metode: Iz bibliografske baze Medline smo s pomočjo ključnih besed ‘quality of life’ in ‘alcohol drinking, alcoholism, alcohol-related disorders’ našli vse izvirne raziskovalne članke v angleškem jeziku, objavljene v zadnjih desetih letih, ki so vključevali prebivalstvo, starejše od 18 let. Ocenili smo ustreznost tako zbranih raziskav in v analizo vključili tiste, ki so obravnavale povezavo med uživanjem alkohola in kakovostjo življenja.
Rezultati: V analizo pa je bilo vključenih 27 raziskav. Po temah lahko raziskave razdelimo v 2 skupini - prve so proučevale povezavo med kakovostjo življenja in uživanjem alkohola v splošnem prebivalstvu, druge pa pri odvisnih od alkohola. Metodološko gre večinoma za presečne in longitudinalne neintervencijske raziskave. Intervencijske raziskave so bile narejene na prebivalstvu odvisnih od alkohola. Nobena raziskava ni uporabila kvalitativne metodologije.
Zaključki: Kakovost življenja je ustrezno merilo za ocenjevanje posledic uživanja alkohola. Manjkajo pa kvalitativne raziskave na tem področju.
Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the temporal association between the number of consultations in the primary health care unit due to respiratory diseases in children and the level of particular matter of 10 micrometres in diameter (PM10) pollution in the Zasavje region.
Methods: A time-trend ecological study was carried out for the period between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011. The daily number of first consultations for respiratory diseases among children in the Zasavje region was observed as the outcome. Poisson regression analysis was used to investigate the association between the observed outcome and the daily PM10 concentrations, adjusted to other covariates.
Results: The results showed that the daily number of first consultations were highly significantly associated with the daily concentrations of PM10 in the Zagorje (p<0.001) and Trbovlje (p<0.001) municipalities. In the Hrastnik municipality, a significant association was not observed in all models.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that evidence of association between the daily PM10 concentration and the daily number of first consultations for respiratory diseases among children exists, indicating that there is still a need for public health activities in the sense of reduction of harmful environmental factors in the region. Additionally, on the basis of these results, it can be assumed that with some improvements linkage of existing health and environmental data in Slovenia in general could be feasible in identifying a grounded need for future public health action.
To assess the psychometric properties of the Croatian version of a Work Ability Index Questionnaire (WAIQ-CRO) in the population of nurses by using a specific methodological approach.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 711 Croatian nurses in 2018 in Zagreb, Croatia. The instrument’s internal consistency was assessed by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α). The factor structure was verified by confirmatory (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), with the assumption of a single-factor structure. To ensure the equality of importance of items in the assessment, the item-specific scores were transformed.
The internal consistency of the instrument was satisfactory (α=0.71). CFA showed poor first model (Model-1) compatibility data (p<0.001, CFI=0.85, GFI=0.93, RMSEA=0.13). The modificated indexes suggested the introduction of correlation parameters residual variances of results from WAIQ-CRO Item-1 and Item-2. After introducing these covariances, the index model assentation (Model-2) showed desirable assentation measures (p<0.001, CFI=0.95, GFI=0.97, RMSEA=0.08). Comparison showed better compatibility of Model-2 (p<0.001). The implementation of EFA has identified three factors. Replication of this model in CFA resulted in relatively good model assentation approaches with data (p<0.001, CFI=0.96, GFI=0.98, RMSEA=0.07). Comparison of this model (Model-3) with Model-2 showed a significantly better compatibility of Model-3 (p<0.001).
The WAIQ-CRO proved to be a reliable and valid instrument which can be used in research among Croatian nurses. The results suggest that it would be better to consider a three-factor structure than a single-factor structure, as a three-factor structure can direct decision-makers to which segment to locate interventions.
Aiming at preparing the basis for evidence-based dental public health policy making in Slovenia, the objective of the study was to assess the strength of association between oral health status measured by the number of missing teeth and self-rated health (SRH).
The study was designed as a pooled individual-level data study from four national cross-sectional studies carried out in the period 2001-2012, based on CINDI Health Monitor methodology. Altogether, 34,412 participants were included. A logistic regression model with poor SRH as observed outcome and the number of teeth as explanatory factor (adjusted for selected biologic, socio-economic and health factors) was proposed.
In the sample, women represented 55.7% and men 44.3%, median age was 45 years. Persons with more missing teeth more likely rated their health as poor. The association was persistent even when different confounding variables were included in the model. In the group with 1-5 missing teeth, in comparison to the group with none missing teeth, OR was 1.23 (p=0.049), whereas for the group with 6-10 missing teeth, OR was 1.32 (p=0.019); for the group with >10 missing teeth, but not all, OR was 1.77 (p<0.001), and for the group with all missing teeth, OR was 2.19 (p<0.001).
Study results showed clear association of SRH with dentate status, which confirms the oral-general health connection. This indicates the need for the development of proper dental public health policies for better oral health, and presents a new view on the importance of preserving teeth.
The aim of this study was to estimate the population burden of respiratory diseases in the Zasavje region of Slovenia that can be attributed to outdoor air pollution in order to gain relevant grounds for evidencebased public health activities. In 2008, 981 schoolchildren (age 6 to 12 years) were observed in a prevalence study. The prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) and frequent acute respiratory symptoms (FARS) was related to the level of outdoor air pollution in the local environment (low, moderate and high pollution areas). Logistic regression was used as a method for statistical analysis. The prevalence of CRD was 3.0 % in low pollution areas, 7.5 % in moderate pollution areas, and 9.7 % in high pollution areas (p=0.005). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.91-times higher odds for CRD were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.017). The prevalence of FARS was: 7.8 % in low pollution areas, 13.3 % in moderate pollution areas and 15.9 % in high pollution areas (p=0.010). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.02-times higher odds for FARS were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.023). The study confirmed a significantly higher prevalence of CRD and FARS in children living in high pollution areas of Zasavje. These results at least partially prompted mutual understanding and cross-sectoral cooperation - prerequisites for solving complex problems involving the impact of air pollution on health.
Individual and social identity of residents of old people's homes in Slovenia
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the degree of individual and social identity of the elderly in institutional care. The paper analyses the data, hitherto unavailable in Slovenia, in order to contribute to the caregivers' knowledge of how to help their clients preserve and maintain their dignity, self-respect and identity.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period December 2005-January 2006. Included in the study were 164 elderly residents of 20 old people's homes. The study instrument incorporated 36 statements addressing individual (15), narrow social (18), and broad social identity (3), which the respondents were asked to agree or disagree with. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to facilitate data analysis of the respondents' gender, age, education and original residence environment.
Results: The results of the study showed no correlation between the degree of individual identity and the respondents' gender, age, education and original residence environment. The correlation between the narrow (p=0.007) and broad (p=0.016) social identity and the residents' educational level, however, was statistically significant. In the latter two cases identity was least pronounced in most educated respondents.
Conclusion: Educational level of old people's home residents correlates positively with their social identity crisis. The findings may contribute to caregivers understanding and recognition of their role in assisting the more educated elderly effectively alleviate or prevent their social identity crisis. In view of the foregoing, the residents' quality of life and their overall well-being can be improved.
To cross-culturally adapt and validate Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54) instrument.
The study which enrolled 134 Slovenian multiple sclerosis (MS) patients was conducted from March to December 2013. The internal consistency of the MSQOL-54 instrument was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and its dimensionality assessed by the principal component analysis (PCA).
The whole instrument had high internal consistency (α=0.88), as well as the majority of its twelve subscales (α=0.83-0.94). The results of the PCA showed two components with eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining 59.4% of the cumulative variance. Further results indicated good construct validity of the instrument with the physical health-related-quality-of-life subscales loading highly on the physical component, and mental health-related-quality-of-life subscales loading highly on the mental component.
The Slovenian version of the MSQOL-54 instrument proved to be an internally consistent and accurate tool, well accepted by the Slovenian MS patients. The adequate psychometric properties warrant the scientifically sound version of the MSQOL-54 instrument, which is from now on at disposal to all health professionals dealing with MS patients in Slovenia.
To validate the Slovenian version (SOC-13-SVN) of Sense of Coherence 13-item instrument (SOC-13) in Slovenian multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
A consecutive 134 Slovenian MS patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in 2013. The reliability of the SOC-13-SVN was assessed for internal consistency by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), dimensionality by the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and criterion validity by Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between SOC-13-SVN global score and MSQOL-54 composite scores – Mental Health Composite score (MHC) and Physical Health Composite score (PHC).
For the SOC-13-SVN instrument as a whole, internal consistency was high (αtotal=0.88) while it was low for three subscales (αcomprehensibility=0.79; αmanageability=0.66; αmeaningfulness=0.69). The results of the CFA confirmed a three-factor structure with good fit (RMSEA=0.059, CFI=0.953, SRMR=0.065), however, the correlations between the factors were very high (rcomprehensibility/manageability=0.938; rcomprehensibility/meaningfulness=0.811; rmanageability/meaningfulness=0.930). The criterion validity analysis showed a moderate positive strength of relationship between SOC-13-SVN global score and both MSQOL-54 composite scores (MHC: r=0.597, p<0.001; PHC: r=0.437, p<0.001).
Analysis of some psychometric properties confirmed that this instrument is a reliable and valid tool for use in Slovenian MS patients. Despite the three-dimensional structure of the instrument, the use of the global summary score is encouraged due to the low reliability of the subscale scores and high correlations between them.