The objective of the study was to determine properties of soils located within a city, and to assess the effect of anthropopressure on the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen in soils of Pruszków . a medium sized town in central Poland. Surface soil layers (0.20 cm) were collected at 36 sites. A total of 12 samples from lawns, 11 from allotment gardens, 9 from fields and 4 from fallow lands were subject to analysis. Lawns and allotment gardens were treated as central zone I . under strong pressure of anthropogenic factors, fields and fallow lands were treated as zone II . with potentially low level of anthropogenic influence. The statistical analysis showed significantly higher (p=0.008) amount of organic carbon (Corg) in lawns (mean 20.5 g·kg-1) and allotment gardens (21.7 g·kg-1) . zone I, than on fallow lands (10.4 g·kg-1) and fields (1.27 g·kg-1) . zone II. The surface layer of soil from allotment gardens also contained significantly higher amount of total nitrogen (mean content 1.1 g·kg-1) than others. The amounts of Corg not depending on the soil texture and very high C/N ratio, suggests the anthropogenic origin of the carbon. The C/N ratio was the highest in the soils of lawns (mean value 26.2) and significantly differed (p=0.04) from C/N ratios in soils of fields and allotment gardens. This suggests low intensity of humus transformation. Other chemical characteristics as hydrolytic acidity (Ha), cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable base cations (EBC) and EBC share in CEC were also higher in central part of Pruszków town (zone I), indicating the effect of urbanization on soil properties.
The paper was focused on determining the content soluble in 20% HCl of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Co, Pb, and Ni in arable Cambisols and Luvisols, developed from boulder loams and fluvioglacial sands of the Middle-Polish (Riss) glacial period, Wartanian Stadial in the Skierniewicka Upland, and recognizing the relationships between these elements and selected soil properties. The mean content of Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Co, Pb, Ni, and Fe in the soils developed from boulder loam was: 288, 24, 5, 3, 12.4, 4, 9, and 6.8 mg·kg−1 of soil, and 1.24%, respectively. The contents of the above mentioned elements in soils developed from fluvioglacial sands were lower and reached: 235, 16, 2.9, 6.5, 2.5, 7, 3.4 mg·kg−1 of soil, and 0.71%, respectively. Statistical analysis has indicated a correlation between the total amounts of Zn, Cu, B, Co, Ni, and the contents of <0.02 mm and <0.002 mm particles and iron. The Fe content was correlated with the texture of soil, the Mn amount was correlated only with the iron content, whereas that of lead – with the organic carbon content. The soil-forming processes influenced the distribution of total contents of elements. The lessivage process influenced the distribution of Zn, Cu and B, the brunification process influenced the distribution of Fe, Ni, B and Co, the gleying process influenced the distribution of Mn, whereas Pb and Zn were bioaccumulated in most humus horizons of the studied soils. The studied arable soils had natural contents of trace elements.
The experiment conducted in the Kampinos National Park since 2015 is aimed at investigating the relationship between the dynamics of black cherry sprouting response and the type and term of implementation of the mechanical elimination procedure. It also identifies macrofungi colonizing trees undergoing eradication. Three treatments, basal cut-stump, cutting (height: ca. 1 m) and girdling, were performed on 4 terms: early and late spring, summer and winter. Each variant was conducted within two plots, and applied to 25 trees, to 600 trees in total. For two consecutive vegetation seasons, sprouts were removed approximately every 8 weeks with the exception of winter-treated trees. Qualitative data were analysed, that is, the number of trees with and without sprouts at subsequent controls, and at the end of the second season, except winter-treated trees. Initially, almost 100% of the trees cut at the base and cut high responded by sprouting. The share of trees without sprouts gradually increased during the following vegetation season, from 3rd to 5th repetition of the sprouts removal, depending on the variant of experiment. Girdling contributed to a delay in sprouting. The effectiveness of procedures, expressed as share of trees without sprouts at the end of the second vegetation season, ranged widely (12%–84%), and depended statistically significantly on the date of the treatment. The effectiveness was higher for treatments done in early (average 68%) and late spring (average 74%), as compared to those done in summer (average 35%). Mycological research concerned 600 trees, including those treated in winter, without sprouts removal. Occurrence of 26 taxa of macrofungi was confirmed on 25% of trees; most of them having wood-decaying properties. Chondrostereum purpureum was most frequent, colonizing 9% of trees. Impact of plots varying soil moisture on succession and rate of fungi colonization, and on sprouting response dynamics requires further research.
In this study physical and chemical analyses of soils were conducted in four areas of the habitat fresh mixed coniferous forest typical of the Kampinos National Park (20% forest area KPN). An attempt was made to evaluate the stock of organic carbon in every genetic horizon and the whole profiles of selected soils, and one counted the indicator ITGL (FSTI - Forest Soil Trophizm Index). In the examined soils, the particle size distributions, the content and ability to store organic carbon was analyzed as well as the amount of total nitrogen, C:N ratio, soil reaction and sorption properties. The highest content and stock of organic carbon was noted in the Brunic Arenosol (Distric) Postagricultural. In the investigated soils, the reserve of the organic carbon is accumulated in almost equal proportional shares, dividing soil into horizontal organic and mineral parts.