Appropriation of Public Urban Space as an Effect of Privatisation and Globalisation
The changes taking place in the public space of many cities of the world have been assessed as harmful. They are seen as resulting from modern processes shaping their spatial-functional structure. Among them are advancing privatisation, which leads to various forms of public space appropriation, and globalisation, which transforms the world from a world of cities and places into one of networks (especially the Internet and motorways). In Polish cities, however, the deterioration in the quality and accessibility of public spaces is due not only to the social awareness developing in the conditions of neoliberalism and a market economy, which puts private property above public to get over the experience of feasible socialism, but to some extent also to Polish legislation. The aim of this article is to present forms and ways of appropriation of public urban space in the conditions of privatisation and globalisation, as well as reasons why this development seems to intensify in the Polish conditions.
Trajectories of the demographic development of Poland after 1989
One of the major problems of contemporary Poland is its increasingly difficult and complicated demographic situation. This makes the identification of demographic trends of the recent years an important research task. The article presents an assessment of Poland's demographic situation after 1989, i.e. after the change of the country's socio-political system, using the graphic method of trajectories. It is one of the possible, though less popular, methods of studying time series, offering a new perspective on various processes, here demographic ones. The article has two aims: cognitive and methodological.
Income and Expenditure of the Polish Population in 2006 (An analysis of Regional Diversification)
Changes in the political system after 1989 have led to the opening up of new areas of study in many fields of research, including socio - economic geography. One such example, undoubtedly, is the regional diversification of income and expenditure of the population, which was the subject of the ongoing studies, whose selected results are presented in this study. An analysis of the level of income and expenditure of the population was important, as it provided information on: the level of socio-economic development, the standard of living, the level of civilization and culture development, consumption structures, consumption patterns, changes in the structure of demand, etc. Therefore, it was significant for understanding the process of changes which have taken place in Poland. The analysis also provided new generic approaches (problems). This article presents, above all, the research results of the regional diversification of income and expenditure levels as well as the consumption structures of the Polish population in 2006 (in an elementary, complex and synthetic section). A further aim of the research, was to determine statistically significant factors which influence the income and consumption patterns - both factors which had a positive impact (the level of urbanization, the efficiency and productivity of the economy, agricultural produce) and a negative one (unemployment, age structure of the population, population growth and industrial production). This resulted from the conviction that, each description is valuable only if it is supplemented with an explanation of the reasons for such a state of affairs.
In urban geography, a traditional but always important research problem has been the spatial-functional structure of towns and changes that occur in this field. Two approaches can be distinguished here: the sociological and the geographical. The former follows in the steps of the so-called Chicago school, i.e. Park, Burgess and Hoyt, and the other of Ullman and Harris. It seems, however, that those two approaches do not exhaust the range of spatial-structural studies which may be conducted in modern towns since there are areas within them endowed with specific properties that can be called their substructures. This paper will present the general characteristics of such substructures and identify factors responsible for their appearance and development. It will also propose an empirical research pattern. The term ‘substructures’ is taken to denote relatively autonomous, highly uniform wholes standing out in the spatial-functional structure of a town, distinguished on the basis of spatial relations generated by people. While structural elements of towns in the approach of the Chicago school or that of Harris and Ullman can be identified with structural regions, urban substructures show a similarity to functional regions in their organisation, structure and operation. Thus, towns with identified substructures have a polycentric spatial- functional structure, favourable in terms of both the level of service of their inhabitants and their sustainable development.
The concept of resilience has in recent years been one of the more commonly used urban development concepts. In the social sciences, the term is understood as a dynamic process that reflects a relatively good adaptation, irrespective of the hazards or traumatic experiences. It is linked with the concepts of risk, vulnerability and positive adaptation. The concept of resilience as used in the social sciences has been adapted by other disciplines, including research on the city, where the term is ambiguously and sometimes inconsistently defined. The aim of this study is to explain the term resilience, its reference to the city and to clear up ambiguities of the terminology related to the two lines of research on resilience in relation to the city as presented by the relevant literature: city resilience and the resilient city. Analyses show that both these terms, despite their widespread application, are at present imprecisely defined in the relevant literature and generally speaking used interchangeably, which makes their precise application difficult. In addition, the assumption that city resilience can be treated as a process that leads to a desired state of the resilient city, has not been confirmed. The correctness of the application of the second of these concepts (the resilient city) raises doubts, because it will probably never be possible to develop a city not vulnerable or fully resistant to various types of development perturbations.
One of the characteristic features of the modern world is the dynamics of demographic changes. Depending on their nature and intensity, they can be a driving force behind socio-economic development or doom it to stagnation or regression. There is no doubt, however, that a declining demographic potential, especially unfavourable changes in the age structure of the population (an ageing society), may contribute to economic difficulties in the given area, often leading to social problems. The aim of the research the results of which are presented in this article was to analyse regional differences in the age structure of Poland’s population in two time intervals, viz. the years 1999 and 2010, using multivariate techniques, and more specifically, principal components analysis and cluster analysis. They both make it possible to accommodate many features of the population age structure simultaneously, thus better illustrating the two situations (the years 1999 and 2010) and changes that took place in between, than univariate approaches
The change in Poland’s systemic conditions and its membership of the European Union make it necessary to take a new look at the organisation, structure and operation of the Polish planning system. In place of two, not always well coordinated, types of planning: socio-economic, now called strategic, and physical, integrated planning is proposed which seeks to combine those two categories into a single stream and treat the objects of planning as a functional whole. This type of approach is recommended by international organisations of urban planners (the New Athens Charter) and academic planners. Integrated planning of urban development is also written in the Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities, an EU urban policy document. However, each planning procedure requires the adoption of certain initial assumptions on which to base the conception of an integrated plan of the socio-economic and spatial development of a city that would accommodate its natural, social and economic spheres. The special character of a city as a living environment (a large population number, high population density, many social structures, etc.) demands giving the assumptions an anthropocentric orientation, i.e. with human beings as the addressees of the planned measures. This means that human needs should figure most prominently in the formulation of the assumptions of urban development. And since man’s diurnal activity is one of the best indicators of articulated needs, an analysis of this activity can provide a basis for the formulation of development assumptions. In this paper we present a general model of integrated planning of the development of a city formulated primarily in terms of the diurnal activity of its residents, but also employing other factors.
In the latest conceptions of urban development planning, special attention is paid to the resident. This is reflected especially in the increasingly popular idea of creating ‘a city for people’. This somewhat banal slogan has got an increasingly sensible and justified theoretical support, as well as examples of practical solutions. The idea of planning urban development to meet human needs (a city for people) underlies many conceptions of urban development, especially those the basic goal of which is to limit suburbanisation unfavourable from a general social point of view and to rationalise the mobility of city residents. It has long been known that their mobility reflects the spatial structure of a city, and that their ever more intensive movement is not favourable from the ecological, social and economic points of view. In this situation it is necessary to shape the spatial-functional structure of the city in a way that will, first, restrict this mobility and, secondly, that will change the ways and means by which residents move. However, in order to make changes in the existing spatial structures in a rational way, it is necessary to know the mobility of city dwellers, its causes, directions, distances covered, and duration. What we shall present in this paper are structural and functional conclusions resulting from an analysis of the mobility of residents relevant for planning. Although our reflections will be primarily theoretical in nature, in many cases they will be backed up by empirical studies, mostly concerning Poznań.