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  • Author: Lidia Gil x
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Diagnostic approach to light-chain cardiac amyloidosis and its differential diagnosis

Abstract

Cardiac amyloidosis is a rare and often-misdiagnosed disorder. Among other forms of deposits affecting the heart, immunoglobulin-derived light-chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) is the most serious form of the disease. Delay in diagnosis and treatment may have a major impact on the prognosis and outcomes of patients. This review focuses on the presentation of the disorder and current novel approaches to the diagnosis of cardiac involvement in AL amyloidosis.

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Stosowanie leków biopodobnych w hematoonkologii – stanowisko Polskiego Towarzystwa Hematologów i Transfuzjologów

Streszczenie

Leki biopodobne odgrywają coraz większą rolę w terapii wielu chorób wraz z wygaśnięciem ochrony patentowej dla kolejnych leków biologicznych. Celem niniejszego opracowania jest przybliżenie terminologii i zasad wprowadzania na rynek leków biopodobnych, zagadnień dotyczących ich etykietowania, ekstrapolacji, wymienialności i automatycznej substytucji. Opracowanie to przedstawia stanowisko Polskiego Towarzystwa Hematologów i Transfuzjologów dotyczące leków biopodobnych, oparte na wytycznych EMA (European Medicine Agency) i stanowisku ESMO (European Society of Medical Oncology).

Open access
The expression BIRC6 gene in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia – a preliminary study

ABSTRACT

The BIRC6 gene encodes the Bruce (Apollon) protein. This belongs to the III class of Inhibitors of the Apoptosis Protein (IAP) and demonstrates anti-apoptotic activity (binding, inhibiting and degrading the caspases). Moreover, the Bruce protein shows multilevel activities and additional functions. The Bruce protein is involved in the maintenance of cell viability, and it is also suggested that it plays an important role in cell proliferation and diversification. Many researchers have noticed elevated BIRC6 gene expression in cell lines of brain cancer and ovarian carcinoma, leukemia, breast cancer and even in colorectal cancer tissues. Resistance to chemotherapy-inducted apoptosis in cancers characterized by BIRC6 gene over-expression was also reported. The aim of the study was to assess the BIRC6 gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Open access
The gene expression of class III inhibitors of apoptosis in arteriosclerotic disease

Abstract

Introduction. Recent research shows that programmed cell death has great importance in the pathomechanism of atherosclerosis. The BIRC5 and BIRC6 genes belong to Class III IAPs with the anti-apoptotic effect. The proteins display multidirectional action. According to the available literature, in addition to the effect of apoptosis inhibition they also display other properties. It is suggested that they play an important role in the processes of proliferation and cellular differentiation. Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the expression of the BIRC5 and BIRC6 genes in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes and in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis. Material and methods. The analysis was carried out on RNA samples obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 21 patients with diagnosed atherosclerosis. The specific fragment of the analysed gene was obtained through amplification with the use of cDNA synthesised in the reaction of reverse transcription. The test of expression was conducted with the use of the Real-Time PCR method. In the studied cases, the level of expression of the analysed gene was compared to the level of expression of the reference gene, B2M. Results. The study showed that mRNA of the BIRC5 and BIRC6 genes is present in the cells of patients with atherosclerosis, as well as in the cells of healthy individuals. The cells taken from the patients with atherosclerosis were mainly characterized by an increased gene expression in comparison to the normal cells. Conclusion. Increased BIRC6 and BIRC5 gene expression in the cells of the patients with atherosclerosis can suggest an increased amount of the inhibitor protein BRUCE and survivin, and also decreased sensitivity of cells to apoptosis. In the case of the patients who had significantly higher expression of the BIRC6 gene in lymphocytes compared to the norm, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were more common

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Szczepienia ochronne u dorosłych chorych na nowotwory hematologiczne oraz u chorych z asplenią – zalecenia PTHiT i sekcji do spraw zakażeń PALG

Streszczenie

Zakażenia należą do najczęstszych przyczyn chorobowości i śmiertelności chorych na nowotwory hematologiczne, a stosowanie szczepień ochronnych może w istotnym stopniu wpłynąć na zmniejszenie częstości ich występowania. W pracy przedstawiono przegląd danych dotyczących ryzyka zakażeń oraz skuteczności immunizacji czynnej u chorych na nowotwory hematologiczne i u pacjentów z anatomiczną lub czynnościową asplenią. Ponadto zawarto rekomendacje dla populacji polskich pacjentów opracowane przez Sekcję Zakażeń Polskiej Grupy ds. Leczenia Białaczek u Dorosłych (PALG) oraz Polskie Towarzystwo Hematologów i Transfuzjologów. Uwzględniono zarówno zalecenia ogólne dotyczące chorych na nowotwory, jak i szczegółowe odnoszące się do określonych nowotworów hematologicznych. Przedstawiono również propozycje poprawy organizacji szczepień u chorych na nowotwory hematologiczne w Polsce.

Open access