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  • Author: Lia-Maria Cioanca x
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Abstract

The analysis of geographical spaces and the way in which physical-geographic elements influence the planning and conduct of military operations is related to military geography as a component of military science. From the military point of view, the parameters of the relief are of particular importance. In this respect, in the Bârgău Mountains, the mountainous landforms, with slopes leading to the lack of viability, then the high ridges and dominant points that offer wide views, the regime of the currents, the rain, the harshness of the climate in different seasons, the high temperature variations and atmospheric pressure, are elements that oppose or which, on the contrary, can be used as a real weapon against the enemy

Abstract

In the context of the World War I outbreak and given the lack of a direct railway line between Transylvania and Bukovina, the Austro-Hungarian army is forced to find a quick and operative solution to the supply of weapons, food, but also to restore the supply to the Austro-Hungarian empire with manganese ore, dolomite, lumber, cereals, animals and other goods provided by Bukovina. Therefore, they considered building a fast link between Transylvania and Bukovina, along a spectacular route, namely, the Prundu Bârgăului-Vatra Dornei railway line. In the successful realization of this great project an ingenious, even revolutionary solution was found for those days: the construction of a railway line with normal gauge, adapted to trains and the petrol-electric traction, according to a model that was used and successfully put into practice since 1912 in Austrian Tirol. The works were completed in a very short time, even though there were very harsh working conditions and the route was extremely difficult. Both the Austro-Hungarian army and civilians from neighbouring villages and prisoners of war contributed to this success.

Abstract

The fortified system Árpád, which bears the name of the former Hungarian dynasty set up during World War II, mainly by the Hungarian horthist, stretched for more than 600 kilometers, one third being on the territory of Romania, and the rest on the territory of Ukraine, Slovakia and Poland. In developing this article, I applied the case study as a research method, which allowed me to inventory and evaluate these Horthy fortifications, but also to collect certain data related to their impact on the life of the local community and tourists visiting the area. Throughout the investigations and the documents studied, I found that the Hungarians built in the Rodna Mountains, right in the heart of the mountains, dozens of casemates for defense and attack and, although they had to be destroyed by those who ordered their arrangement, the hasty withdrawal of the Horthyists left some of the bunkers almost intact. The case study shows that the bunkers here were smaller and slightly stiffer. The Hungarians were inspired by the French and Belgian fortifications occupied by the Germans, and the concept was rethought and adapted to the natural conditions in the Carpathians. Following the study, I found that the horthyst defensive system in Transylvania was planned to have 5 types of casemates, depending on their role: surveillance or firing nests or depending on what they housed: ammunition, soldiers or officers. The entire northern group of the Eastern Carpathians bear the traces of armed conflict. Such arrangements can be found in the territories of Rodna, Ilva Mică, Ilva Mare and Mureşenii Bârgăului, areas with a rich natural tourism potential, which, exploited to its true value, could attract many curious and eager tourists to know the history of the places.

Abstract

The political-military context of the time required finding an urgent solution to stop the mass emigration over the mountains, which decreased the productive and contributing population. Thus, the massive emigration of the Romanian population had to be stopped, the contact too close between the two sides of the Carpathians had to be broken and this permanent popular osmosis was deemed necessary to be established, the borders had to be better secured and under the relation of the economic exchanges, of the smuggling, of the customs regime, of the mercantilism practiced by the regime, it was absolutely necessary to prevent the penetration of the plagues from the East, which became endemic, decimating the population; this led to the establishment of border regiments.

In elaborating this study I used the qualitative method in order to interpret the historical events of the time, an important role in the research undertaken having direct observations made in the field to inventory strategically and militarily favorable geographical areas for the location of the Second Border Regiment, but also in order to evaluate the existing tourist resources, to capitalize on them by the inhabitants of the area and to have an impact on potential tourists. Following the study, I was able to see the beneficial role that the border regiment had on the belonging communes, as well as the positive impact on the community by implementing a much more advanced stage of development.

Abstract

Tourism as any other human activity causes a negative impact on the environment when the general rules of behaviour and management are not fully respected. Actually the growing development of tourism and the increasing number of tourists in the area, have had a negative but prominent effect on the local environment as well.

Abstract

The former petrol-based electric railway, built during First World War originally served for the food and ammunition transport meant for the armies, which had settled down the mountain peaks nearby, today in the area of Vatra Dornei or Cârlibaba and which were guarding the passage towards Transylvania. They were often used to evacuate the wounded and for commercial purposes as well, in order to transport cereal and many other kinds of grains at the blooming 1916, all this acquired from the requisitions of Bucovina and even from the smuggling or imports of Romania, which still enjoyed neutrality by the time.