Register data that originate from administrative or other secondary sources are increasingly being used to generate statistical outputs directly. The coverage of the input datasets is an important issue in this respect. Traditionally capture-recapture models have been used to deal with multiple list enumerations subjected to undercoverage errors. The aim of this article is to scope possible approaches to modelling capture-recapture data with additional overcoverage error. Attention is primarily given to model interpretations and conditions under which a model may provide a plausible basis for estimation and uncertainty evaluation. The setting with two list enumerations is examined in depth as it is the most common in practice. Models that can be extended to include more than two lists are identified. An additional independent coverage survey with only undercoverage error is always needed for estimation. Potential application to census coverage-error adjustment is discussed.
The problem of inference about the joint distribution of two categorical variables based on knowledge or observations of their marginal distributions, to be referred to as categorical data fusion in this paper, is relevant in statistical matching, ecological inference, market research, and several other related fields. This article organizes the use of proxy variables, to be distinguished from other auxiliary variables, both in terms of their effects on the uncertainty of fusion and the techniques of fusion. A measure of the gains of efficiency is provided, which incorporates both the identification uncertainty associated with data fusion and the sampling uncertainty that arises when the theoretical bounds of the uncertainty space are unknown and need to be estimated. Several existing techniques for generating fusion distributions (or datasets) are described and some new ones proposed. Analysis of real-life data demonstrates empirically that proxy variables can make data fusion more precise and the constructed fusion distribution more plausible.
Several countries are currently investigating the possibility of replacing the costly population census with a Population Data set derived from administrative sources, in combination with a purposely designed Population Coverage Survey. We formulate the assumptions of the dual system estimator in this context, and contrast them to the situation involving a census and a Census Coverage Survey.
To explore the concept of adherence in the context of rehabilitation of patients with chronic illnesses. This concept analysis is helpful in predicting health behaviors and intentions including physical activity and dietary behaviors in patients with chronic illnesses.
The framework of Walker and Avant was used to analyze the concept of adherence.
Adherence is defined as the extent to which a person’s behavior, such as taking medication, following a diet, and/or executing lifestyle changes, corresponds to agreed recommendations from a health-care provider. The antecedents of adherence are the biomedical status of the individual, social support, self-efficacy, and education. Self-report questionnaires and patient self-reporting are the most common measurement tools of adherence. Thus, the reliable and valid instrument of monitoring adherence in the clinical settings is challenging.
Analyzing the concept of adherence is necessary to help understand how best to promote adherence to improve health-related outcomes.
Despite increasing efforts during data collection, nonresponse remains sizeable in many household surveys. Statistical adjustment is hence unavoidable. By reweighting the design, weights of the respondents are adjusted to compensate for nonresponse. However, there is no consensus on how this should be carried out in general. Theoretical comparisons are inconclusive in the literature, and the associated simulation studies involve hypothetical situations not all equally relevant to reality. In this article we evaluate the three most common reweighting approaches in practice, based on real data in Norway from the two largest household surveys in the European Statistical System. We demonstrate how cross- examination of various reweighting estimators can help inform the effectiveness of the available auxiliary variables and the choice of the weight adjustment method.
Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) known to be sensitive to mechanical stimulus. This type of stimulus plays a role in cellular differentiation, so that it might affect MSCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes.
Objectives: Investigate the effect of mechanical stimulus on MSCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes.
Methods: The adipose tissue-derived MSCs were induced to differentiate with 5-azacytidine, and stimulated by one Hz mechanical stretching up to 8%. After 10 days, the cell’s cardiac markers and cardiogenesis-related genes were detected by immumohistochemistrical staining and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and the cell’s ATPase activity was detected.
Results: The cyclic mechanical stretching enhanced the expression of cardiogenesis-related genes and cardiac markers, and stimulated the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase in the MSCs treated with 5-azacytidine. Without 5-azacytidine pre-treatment, cyclic mechanical stretch alone has little effect.
Conclusion: Mechanical stretch combined with 5-azacytidine treatment could accelerate MSCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes.
Background: At present, patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRD) face the question of how to achieve adequate dialysis to maintain their survival with the best quality of life as long as possible. Therefore, the choice of suitable dialysis methods and dialysis dose is important.
Objective: To find suitable dialysis methods and an appropriate dialysis dose for patients with ESRD.
Methods: Our research compares the long-term clinical effects between the patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), daytime ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (DAPD), and hemodialysis (HD). Thirty-two patients subjected to peritoneal dialysis were selected and divided into group A (n = 16) and group B (n = 16), group A was treated by using the traditional CAPD pattern; group B was treated by using DAPD. Forty-six patients of renal failure at final stage were divided into group A (n = 23) and group B (n = 23), group A was treated by using a HD method, group B was treated by using a DAPD method.
Results: When the same dialysis dose was applied, the patients with long-term DAPD treatment can obtain satisfactory clinical therapeutic efficacy for the period of maintenance dialysis, thoroughness of dialysis, maintenance of nutritional status, blood pressure regulation, reduction in incidence rate of peritoneal infection, maintenance of relatively high activity in daily life and alleviation in depression, comparable to patients treated with traditional CAPD or HD methods.
Conclusion: The long-term clinical effects of DAPD are comparable to CAPD or HD.