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Open access

Li Yanwei, Zeng Wei and Zhu Yu


Background: Dry eye is a common ophthalmic problem and lactoferrin (LF) is one of the most important components of the immune system. Preliminary findings have suggested that LF concentration in tears may be linked to the risk of dry eye.

Objective: We investigated the relationship between dry eye and lactoferrin levels in tears.

Material and methods: LF levels in the tears of 40 patients with dry eye and 35 healthy controls were measured by radial immunodiffusion assay. Statistical analysis was used to study the correlation between LF levels and results of both Schirmer’s and tear film break-up time tests and the age of the subject.

Results: The concentration of LF was significantly decreased in the tears of dry eye subjects compared with control subjects (P<0.001). There is a positive relationship between LF in tears and results from Schirmer’s and tear film break-up time tests in non-Sj⃞gren’s syndrome (r=0.48 and 0.78 respectively P<0.001), while there is a negative relationship between LF and age (r= -0.74, P<0.005).

Conclusions: Decreased LF in tears is a factor in the pathology of dry eye. When treating non-Sj⃞gren’s syndrome, treatment with LF could be added to artificial tear treatment.

Open access

Yan-Ping Zhu, Li-Xia Xia and Guo-Hong Li



The aim of this study was to assess the management of early mobilization (EM) in Chinese intensive care units (ICUs).


This survey used a cross-sectional, observational design. A total of 65 tertiary and secondary hospitals were enrolled by convenience sampling and investigated using self-designed questionnaires.


We identified 69 ICUs in Jiangsu, China (response rate: 94.2%). 74.2% (1,004/1,353) of the nurses and nursing managers from 65 ICUs reported mobility practice. For the mobility level, 98.1% (1,327) reported use of in-bed exercise, 5.7% (77) sitting on a side of bed, 21.7% (294) transfer to chair, and 2.4% (33) walking. The most frequently reported barriers to early mobility were unplanned extubation, nursing resource, and absence of physical therapist. Nurses’ educational backgrounds, nursing experience, the lack of nursing resources, absence of physician, and the weakness of patient were the factors that influenced ICU early rehabilitation (P<0.01).


Although implementation rates for EM in critically ill patients are high, the activity level is generally poor in most of the involved ICUs.

Open access

Xiao-ming Li, Jia-yue Yin, He-zuo Qu, Cheng-qiong Bi, Hao-jun Xu and Li Zhu

Open access

Xiao-ming Li, Jia-yue Yin, Hao-jun Xu, Chengqiong Bi, Li Zhu, Xiao-dong Deng and Lei-nan Ma

Open access

Zhu Chen, Yi-lan Zeng, Li Wang, Rong Hu, Yan Wang, Yu-zhen Tang, Li Zhu and Bei Wu


Objective To compare the efficacy of peginterferon alfa-2a (PEGASYS) plus ribavirin (RBV) with interferon alfa-2a plus RBV, and evaluate the safety.

Methods Total of 117 patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled to receive either PEGASYS (135 μg or 180 μg) subcutaneously once per week, plus RBV (800 mg-1 200 mg) per day for 48 weeks (79 patients, PEGASYS group), or 5 million units of interferon alfa-2a subcutaneously every other day, plus RBV as above dosage for 48 weeks (38 patients, IFNα group).

Results Sixty-three of 79 (79.7%) patients reached sustained virological response (SVR) in PEGASYS group, while 14 of 38 (36.8%) patients reached SVR in IFNα group. PEGASYS group was associated with a higher rate of virologic response than IFNα group at week 4, 12, 36, 48 and week 72. Sustained normalization of serum ALT concentrations at week 36, 48 and week 72 was also more common in PEGASYS group than in IFNα group. Baseline levels of ALT and HCV RNA had no effect on SVR in either PEGASYS group or IFNα group. Both groups were similar in the frequency and severity of adverse events.

Conclusions PEGASYS plus RBV produced similar adverse events but higher rate of SVR. Meanwhile, complications should be prevented and treated promptly in order to increase compliances and effects.

Open access

Wen-mao Ding, Lan Li, Rui-ying Wang and Zhu-ling Cao


Background: Nicotine can affect the development of Atherosclerosis (AS). Monocytes/macrophages are the important cells hi the AS lesions.

Objective: We studied the mechanisms of smoking on AS. The effects of nicotine on macrophage were investigated hi this study.

Methods: Different concentration of nicotine (6 × 10-9~-5 mol/L), different incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 horn s) and 7 β-hydroxycholesterol (50 μg ml) were schemed in this study. After exposure of macrophage to those different conditions, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and tumor necrosis factor-⃞ (TNF-α) content in the supernatant were assayed.

Results: Nicotine (6 × 10-9mol/L~-6×10-5mol/L) treatment resulted in a marked reduction of LDH in the supernatant (131,0±9.6 U/L. 129.7±6.2 U/L, 129.4±5.3 U/L, 134.2±8.4 U/L, and 138.3+9.7 U/L vs. 151.3+8.1 U/L, p <0.05 respectively, q-test). The same change trend was seen when co-treated with 7β-hydroxycholestrol and nicotine (135.7±7.6U/L, 135.6±6.6U/L, 136.1±6.7 U/L, 142.9±4.5 U/L, and 146.4±4.4 U/L vs. 152.4⃞6.2U/L, P<0.05 respectively, q-test). The peak effects occurred at the nicotine concentration of 6 × 10-7mol/L and the first 18-hours incubation. Nicotine (6 ×10-9mol/L~6 × 10-6mol L) treatment result in the increase of TNF-α in the supernatant (0.28±0.06 ng/mL, 0.32±0.05 ng/mL, 0.40±0.07 ng/mL. and 0.30±0.08 ng/mL vs. 0.17±0.05 ng/mL, p <0.05 respectively, q-test). Nicotine (6 × 10-5mol/L) treatment have no significant hicrease compared to the control group (0.21±0.08 ng/mL vs. 0.17+0.05 ng/mL, p >0.05, q-test). The peak effects occurred at the nicothie concentration of 6 × 10-7mol/L.

Conclusions: Nicotine can produce the beneficial effect on macrophage. Nicotine treatment can activate macrophage to produce TNF-α. Thus, nicotine can be a mechanism on the development of atherosclerosis.

Open access

Fu Qiang, Zhang Benying, Zhao Yuanyuan, Zhu Rongsheng, Liu Gang and Li Mengyuan


In the field of ocean engineering, cavitation is widespread, for the study of cavitation nuclei transient characteristics in cavitation inception, we applied theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to study Lennard-Jones (L-J) fluid with different initial cavitation nuclei under the NVT-constant ensemble in this manuscript. The results showed that in cavitation inception, due to the decrease of liquid local pressure, the liquid molecules would enter the cavitation nuclei, which contributed to the growth of cavitation nuclei. By using molecular potential energy, it was found that the molecular potential energy was higher in cavitation nuclei part, while the liquid molecular potential energy changes greatly at the beginning of the cavitation nuclei growth. The density of the liquid and the surface layer changes more obvious, but density of vapor in the bubble changes inconspicuously. With the growth of cavitation nuclei, the RDF peak intensity increased, the peak width narrowed and the first valley moved inner. When cavitation nuclei initial size reduced, the peak intensity reduced, the corresponding rbin increased. With the decrease of the initial cavitation nuclei, the system pressure and total energy achieved a balance longer, and correspondingly, they were smaller. In addition, at the beginning of the cavitation nuclei growth, the total energy and system pressure changed greatly.