A novel method for feature extraction and recognition called Kernel Fuzzy Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is proposed in this paper to deal with recognition problems, e.g., for images. The KFDA method is obtained by combining the advantages of fuzzy methods and a kernel trick. Based on the orthogonal-triangular decomposition of a matrix and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), two different variants, KFDA/QR and KFDA/SVD, of KFDA are obtained. In the proposed method, the membership degree is incorporated into the definition of between-class and within-class scatter matrices to get fuzzy between-class and within-class scatter matrices. The membership degree is obtained by combining the measures of features of samples data. In addition, the effects of employing different measures is investigated from a pure mathematical point of view, and the t-test statistical method is used for comparing the robustness of the learning algorithm. Experimental results on ORL and FERET face databases show that KFDA/QR and KFDA/SVD are more effective and feasible than Fuzzy Discriminant Analysis (FDA) and Kernel Discriminant Analysis (KDA) in terms of the mean correct recognition rate.
The nucleotide binding site (NBS) domain sequences were isolated from genomic DNA in black bamboo, using the degenerate primer designed according to the conserved motifs of the NBS resistance gene. The expected size of the PCR product was about 700 bp. Among 55 positive clones, the amino acid sequence alignment identified 33 black bamboo resistance gene analogs (RGAs) that contain the NBS conserved motifs. All of the 33 RGAs ORFs were constructed in an NJ (Neighbor-joining) tree, and divided into 10 groups. This analysis demonstrated the diversity of the NBS class RGA in black bamboo. The maximum likelihood estimates of various evolutionary models were analyzed; the result showed that 2 groups with a total of 10 sequences and 12 sites demonstrated statistically significant positive selection. Most of the positive selected sites were not located in the NBS conserved motifs. Two groups of gene conversion events had been discovered, which provide a material basis and research direction in isolating black bamboo R genes.
This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of walking exercise on bowel preparation in patients undergoing colonoscopy.
PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Ovid, The Cochrane Library, Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, and Chinese BioMedical Database were searched from their inception to January 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) examining the effects of walking exercise in patients undergoing colonoscopy were considered for inclusion. After screening literature, extracting data and evaluating methodological quality, RevMan 5.3 software was used for meta-analysis.
Five studies (four RCTs and one CCTs) involved 984 participants were included. The results of meta-analysis demonstrated that the walking exercise group showed significantly higher improvements in the rate of adequate bowel preparation than the control group (risk ratio [RR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03–1.58], P < 0.05). In addition, the walking exercise group had lower incidence of vomiting (RR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.23–0.68], P < 0.01) and abdominal pain (RR = 0.51, 95% CI [0.29–0.90], P < 0.05) with lower heterogeneity.
This systematic review and meta-analysis provided specific evidence that walking exercise during bowel preparation can improve the rate of adequate bowel preparation and reduce the incidence of vomiting and abdominal pain in patients undergoing colonoscopy. Since the conclusion of this meta-analysis was drawn based on the limited number of high-quality RCTs, more rigorous RCTs should be conducted in the future.
The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow induced by a corona discharge has an important influence on the movement and collection of fine particles in an electrostatic precipitator. In this paper, three-dimensional particle image velocimetry (3D-PIV) is used to investigate the impact of different primary flow velocities and applied voltage on diffusion and transport of the spiked tubular electrode corona discharge EHD flow in a wide type electrostatic precipitator. In order to measure the flow characteristics of different positions of a spiked tubular electrode, the PIV measurements are carried out in several cross-sectional planes along the ESP duct. From 2D flow streamlines, in plane 1 (where the tip of the spike is oriented in the direction of primary flow), the velocity of the counter-clockwise vortex caused by the EHD flow near the plate decreases as the primary flow velocity increases. However, in plane 3 (where the tip direction is opposite to the primary flow), two vortices rotate adversely, and the flow velocity of the clockwise vortex near the plate increases as the primary flow velocity increases. Flow velocity increasing near the plate makes the particles deposited on the plate more easily to be re-entrained. It can be found in the three-dimensional analysis of the flow field that there are mainly “ascending vortex” and downward tip jet in the three observation planes. There is a discrepancy (in terms of distribution region and the magnitude of velocity) between the three-dimensional characteristics of these vortices and tip jets in the different cross-sectional planes.
In this work, we have designed and synthesized the fluorescent probe 1, which was capable to selectively detect fluoride anion (F−). More importantly, the probe 1 possessed near-infrared excitation and emission wavelengths (excitation at 650 nm and emission at 695), and the probe solution had changed dramatically from yellow to cyan with the addition of F–. In addition, the fluorescence intensity exhibited perfectly positive correlation with concentration of F− concentration from 0 to 40 μM (R2 = 0.9972), which offered the important condition for quantitative analysis. The probe 1 owned detection limit of 46 nM. Therefore, this near-infrared probe can be of great benefit for detecting F− in practical application.
In this paper, we show the process inspired by model checking which integrate temporal logic to the application of semi-structured data query. We investigate the potential ofatechnique based on CTL (Computation Tree Logic) model checking for evaluating queries expressed in (a subset of) XPath. Our research consists of query algebra, constraint understanding and expression mapping. The core of research is mapping the XMLquery algebra to an expression collection of temporal logic. We tryanew kind of query execution strategy to enhance the accuracy of semantic description of the XMLquery. For the purpose of supporting the generation of the formal specifications and reducing the mapping processing, the XMLquery constraint can be converted toaspecification of SPS (Specification Pattern System) through which we get the formula set to evaluate path queries directly on CTLformula.
Objective: The objective of the following study is to investigate the relationship between blood lipid levels and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in Shanghai urban population. Materials and Methods: A total of 2504 residents over 40 years old in Jiading District of Shanghai municipality were divided into two groups in terms of the CIMT value 0.7 mm: Thickened group (n = 478) and normal group (n = 2026). All the patients received examinations of height, weight, waist, blood pressure, blood lipid level, hepatic and renal function, oral glucose tolerance test and carotid artery B-ultrasonography. Results: In comparison with those in CIMT normal group, the proportion of males, ages, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and levels of fast blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were increased, but the levels of fast insulin were decreased (all P < 0.05). The risks of CIMT thickness were elevated by 19% and 25% as every increase in the standard deviation of the TC and LDL-C levels respectively (95% of confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.31; 95% CI 1.13-1.37). Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between CIMT thickness and TC/LDL-C. The levels of TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with CIMT thickness. Conclusions: Levels of blood TC and LDL-C have significant correlations with the CIMT thickness in Shanghai urban population.
Xylazine, a type of α2-adrenoceptors, is a commonly used drug in veterinary medicine. Xylazine-induced changes in the content of amino acid neurotransmitters – glycine (Gly) and aspartic acid (Asp), in different brain regions and neurons were studied.
Material and Methods
Wistar rats were administered 50 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg of xylazine by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted, in which neurons were treated with 15 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 35μg/mL, and 45 μg/mL of xylazine. Test methods were based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).
During anaesthesia, Asp levels in each brain area were significantly lower compared to the control group. Except for the cerebrum, levels of Gly in other brain areas were significantly increased during the anaesthesia period. In vitro, xylazine-related neuron secretion of Gly increased significantly compared to the control group at 60 min and 90 min. Moreover, xylazine caused a significant decrease in the levels of Asp secreted by neurons at 20 min, but gradually returned to the level of the control group.
The data showed that during anaesthesia the overall levels of Asp decreased and overall levels of Gly increased. In addition, the inhibitory effect of xylazine on Asp and the promotion of Gly were dose-dependent. Our data showed that different effects of xylazine on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters provided a theoretical basis for the mechanism of xylazine activity in clinical anaesthesia.
Intensive care unit (ICU) needs professional nursing staff with high professionalism to ensure the quality of nursing work and ensure patient's safety. However, low-age nurses play an important role in the ICU care team. In this study the authors reviewed the relevant literature, summarized the basic characteristics and training methods of ICU low-grade nurses, and analyzed the insecure factors and management strategies of ICU low-grade nurses.
This meta-analysis aimed to examine the effects of parental involvement in infant care in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).
PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database, and VIP database were searched till November 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) examining the effect of parental involvement in the NICU were considered for inclusion.
We included 10 studies (three RCTs, seven CCTs) with a total of 1,851 participants. The meta-analysis demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences on nosocomial infection between two groups (risk ratio [RR] = 0.90, 95% CI 0.63–1.30, P = 0.58). Compared with no parental involvement groups, parental involvement groups showed more weight gain (mean difference [MD] = 1.47, 95% CI 0.65–2.29, P < 0.05), higher breast-feeding rate (RR = 1.38, 95% C11.25–1.53, P < 0.05), lower readmission rate (RR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.15–0.80, P < 0.05), and higher satisfaction rate (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.16, P< 0.05).
Parental involvement in the NICU interventions could not increase the rate of nosocomial infection of neonates, but could improve their weight gain, breast-feeding and parental satisfaction and decrease their readmission. However, since the conclusion of this meta-analysis was drawn based on the limited number of high-quality RCTs, more high-quality studies should be conducted in the future to confirm its positive intervention effects.