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Open access

Li H. Wang, Hao Liu and Li Li

Abstract

A carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of carbonized seed shells of Jatropha curcas (J. curcas L.). The structure of amorphous carbon consisting of polycyclic aromatic carbon sheets attached a high density of acidic SO3H groups (2.0 mmol · g−1) was identified with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The performance of the solid acid catalyst was evaluated for biodiesel production in the esterification of oleic acid with methanol. 95.7% yield of biodiesel was obtained after 2 h reaction and the conversions with reused catalyst varied in the range of 95.7% to 95.1%, showing better activity and stability than commercial catalyst amberlyst-46. It was also observed that the prepared catalyst showed enhanced activity in the transesterification of triolein with methanol when compared with other solid acid catalysts. A synergistic effect results from the high density of SO3H groups and the good access of reactants to the acidic sites can be used to explain the excellent catalytic activity, as well as the strong affinity between the hydrophilic reactants and the neutral OH groups bonded to the polycyclic aromatic carbon rings.

Open access

X. Xue, Y. Wang, H. Korpelainen and C. Li

Summary

Picea asperata Mast., which occurs in a restricted habitat in western China, has a wide ecological amplitude. In the present study, ten natural populations of P. asperata were studied using AFLP markers to investigate the population genetic structure and the level of genetic diversity. Of the 210 loci identified with two EcoRI/MseI primer combinations, 142 loci were found to be polymorphic. Yet, the level of genetic diversity observed within populations was quite low. The averages of NEI’s gene diversities (h) and Shannon's indices of diversity (I) calculated across populations equaled 0.156 and 0.227, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation among populations, based on the estimate GST and the unbiased estimate Φst, equaled 0.340 and 0.231, respectively. The mean genetic distance (D) between population pairs was 0.119 (range 0.050-0.156). Such high values indicate that there is significant differentiation among populations of P. asperata. Several factors could have contributed to the strong population differentiation, including relatively limited gene flow between populations (Nm = 0.968). Variation in environmental conditions and consequent selection pressures may be other factors attributing to the high level of genetic differentiation among populations. In addition, it was discovered that the geographic distances are not correlated with the genetic distances between the populations of P. asperata.

Open access

Y. H. Li, X. Y. Kang, S. D. Wang, Z. H. Zhang and H. W. Chen

Abstract

Efficient methods for obtaining unreduced female gametes are needed for triploid induction in Populus alba x P. glandulosa. A cytological study of MMCs and PMCs meiosis and staminate floral elongation revealed that there was a close association between MMCs meiotic stage and male bud phenology during development under the same environment conditions. Female buds of Populus alba x P. glandulosa were treated with 0.5% colchicine solution at the selected meiotic stages based on male bud phenology. The treated buds were pollinated with pollen of P. tomentosa. A high rate of unreduced female gametes occurred in late leptotene and pachytene stages of MMC, as evidenced by a relatively higher percentage of triploids in the progeny, when compared to progeny from colchincine application at other meiotic stages. The present results demonstrated that male bud phenology can be used to guide colchicine applications to female buds and cause a more efficient production of triploids.

Open access

G. Chen, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, H. Korpelainen and C. Li

Abstract

Hippophae rhamnoides L., a dioecious and deciduous shrub species, occupies a wide range of habitats in the Wolong Nature Reserve, Southwest China. Our present study investigated the pattern of genetic variation and differentiation among five natural populations of H. rhamnoides, occurring along an altitudinal gradient that varied from 1,800 to 3,400 m above sea level in the Wolong Natural Reserve, by using ISSR markers. Based on fingerprinting patterns generated by fifteen primers, high levels of genetic variation were present within populations and subpopulations. Substantial genetic divergence was observed among populations, and also among female and male subpopulations, the GST values equaling 0.182, 0.222, and 0.238, respectively. Such considerable divergence present among populations and subpopulations may be caused by complex topography which effectively restricts gene flow, and by variable climatic conditions at different altitudes which may cause varying selective pressures. A significantly positive correlation between genetic and altitudinal distances was detected for the five populations and female subpopulations of H. rhamnoides. The cluster analysis including all populations or male subpopulations resulted in three altitude groups. Our results suggest that altitudinal gradients may be the prime cause affecting the genetic variation pattern of different populations and subpopulations in H. rhamnoides in the Wolong Nature Reserve, Southwest China.

Open access

H Yang, J Liu, K Li, X Yin, X Tan and J Wang

Abstract

3-Oxo-α-ionol ethyl carbonate, a precursor of megastigmatrienones was prepared by reduction of α-ionone to α-ionol, followed by esterification with ethyl chloroformate and then by oxidation with t-butyl chromate. The total yield was about 23%. Infrared (IR) and mass spectra of this compound were determined. Upon smoking, cigarettes to which 0.002% by weight of the titled compound was added had an improved and more harmonious flavor. The smoke was sweeter and had a cleaner after taste. Experimental results suggest that the title compound added to the tobacco pyrolyzes to form megastigmatrienones during smoking.

Open access

Z. Q. Wang, Ciren, H. J. Ren, L. Z. Li and J. Cui

Summary

The diagnosis of trichinellosis is rather difficult because fever, myalgia and eosinophilia are nonspecific, and diagnosis may be delayed. We describe a small familiar outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in early 2009 in Tibet, southwestern China, due to consumption of raw pork. The patients with trichinellosis were diagnosed by muscle biopsy and serological tests (ELISA and IFA) early at 12 days after onset of disease. Both of the pre-encapsulated and encapsulated Trichinella larvae collected from biopsy muscles and residual pork were identified as Trichinella spiralis by multiplex PCR. This is the first species identification of Trichinella isolates from the biopsy muscles of patients with trichinellosis in China.

Open access

J. Wang, X. Y. Kang, D. L. Li, H. W. Chen and P. D. Zhang

Abstract

Diploid (2n) eggs were induced by treating developing embryo sacs of Populus with colchicine solution, in order to produce triploid plants. The optimal pollinated time of female catkins was confirmed as timing point for each treatment. When female catkins of P. pseudo-simonii x P. nigra ‘Zheyin3#’ had become 5.62 ± 0.13 cm long 84 h after they emerged from their bract scales and all stigmas were exposed, pistils all over the entire catkin had optimal stigma receptivity. Observation of paraffin sections showed that embryo sac development of ‘Zheyin3#’, which initiated 12 h before pollination and finished 132 h after pollination, was a successive and asynchronous process. Generative cell division of pollen of the male parent P. x beijingensis took place 3-16 h after pollination. Catkins of 18-96 h after pollination of ‘Zheyin3#’ were treated with colchicine solution. In the progeny, twenty three triploids were detected by chromosome counting and the highest rate of triploids was 66.7% in one treatment. The rate of triploid yield was positively correlated with the frequency of four-nucleate embryo sacs (r = 0.6721, p = 0.0981) and was not significantly correlated with the percentages of uni-, twoand eight-nucleate embryo sac (r = -0.1667, p = 0.7210, r = -0.3069, p = 0.5031 and r = 0.0189, p = 0.9679, respectively), suggesting that the third mitotic division of embryo sac may be the effective stage to induce 2n eggs. Through this approach, completely homozygous 2n eggs can be produced. Its significance for plant breeding is discussed.

Open access

X. Y. Li, Q. Z. Liu, Y. Z. Wang, H. Y. Sun, C. Q. Bai and E. E. Lewis

Abstract

Long-term changes of soil nematode diversity and distribution patterns in replant peach orchard (RPO) and continuous-planting peach orchard (CPPO) were assessed to evaluate different effects on nematode community and function by RPO and CPPO, in relation to peach replant problem from the point of soil fauna. Observations were conducted on a silt loam soil, and soil sampling was performed four times through the growing season of peach trees in the period from 2006 to 2008 in Pinggu, Beijing. The result showed that RPO differed from CPPO by its higher abundance of plant feeding nematodes but lower abundance of bacterivore nematodes, as well as significantly higher values of plant parasite index but lower nematode biodiversity. Obviously, the absolute abundance of Paratylenchus in RPO was higher than that in CPPO, which could be a key factor for the peach replant problems from the part of soil nematode. Nematode function indices and weighted nematode fauna profile analysis were no significantly different in the two peach ecosystems, but they represented an indication of high disturbance, N-enriched, bacterial decomposition pathway.