Magdalena Szalewska, Marta Lupa, Natalia Pochroń, Stanisław Pudzianowski, Leszek Szalewski, Andrzej Bożyk and Janusz Borowicz
Introduction. The joint hypermobility syndrome is a connective tissue disorder affecting the entire organism. The symptoms include laxity of joint-stabilizing capsules and ligaments, excessive joint mobility and other accompanying symptoms. Some symptoms manifest in the oral cavity, which is of importance to dentists.
Aim. The authors attempted to determine the prevalence of joint hypermobility syndrome in the population studied.
Material and methods. The questionnaire study was conducted amongst students of the Faculty of Medicine with Dentistry Division, Medical University of Lublin. The study population consisted of 321 individuals, including 283 Polish students and 37 students of south-eastern nationalities (Saudi Arabia, Taiwan).
Results and conclusions. The prevalence of constitutional hypermobility amongst dental students is comparable to that reported in literature. Constitutional hypermobility is more common in students of south-eastern nationalities than in Polish students.
Beata Kubić-Filiks, Joanna Rosiak, Leszek Szalewski, Elżbieta Pietryka-Michałowska and Jolanta Szymańska
Introduction. The results of epidemiological and socio-medical studies of specific age groups in Poland indicate that tooth decay and periodontal diseases still pose a significant health problem.
Aim. The aim of the study was the assessment of the reasons for reporting to the dental office and the assessment of oral health in children aged 0-6 years.
Material and methods. The study comprised 45 patients in the preschool age (2-6 years old), who for the first time reported in 2015 to the dental office, which offers treatment under the framework of an agreement with the National Health Fund or for a fee. Gender, age, the place of residence and the reason for the reporting to the dentist were analyzed. The place of residence was a village, a town of less than 200 thousand inhabitants or the city of more than 200 thousand inhabitants. The reason for reporting to the dental office was a check-up visit, toothache or loss of filling. Dental condition was assessed by calculating the dmf index. The results were statistically analyzed.
Results. Among the surveyed, there were no children younger than 2-year-olds. It was found that the dmf index was ranging in an individual patient from 0 to 20, in half of them the dmf index value was ≤ 7, while in all of the patients the average dmf index was 6.42. The percentage of respondents with dmf=0 was significantly higher among children living in the city than children living in rural areas.
Conclusion. It is necessary to intensify educational activities concerning oral health of children, addressed to pregnant women, parents and people from the living environmental of a little child. This applies in particular to promoting early reporting to the first ever, the adaptive visit of a child to the dentist, frequent and regular check-up visits, during which, regardless of the examination, prophylaxis or treatment activities can be carried out if necessary.
Leszek Szalewski, Elżbieta Pietryka-MichaŁowska and Jolanta Szymańska
Introduction. Dental prosthetic replacements allow restoring the masticatory function, thus contributing to proper nutrition and correct speech, and also improving facial aesthetics.
Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the selected sociodemographic characteristics of people using removable dentures (patient-paid and funded by the National Health Fund).
Material and methods. A questionnaire survey involved 321 individuals, resident in the Lubelskie Voivodship, who used removable dental prostheses. Their selected sociodemographic characteristics were analysed: age, sex, education, place of residence and material status, as well as the form of payment for prosthetic replacements. The obtained results were analysed statistically.
Results. Almost 70% of the studied population wearing removable prostheses had their dentures funded by the National Health Fund. In each age group, women used National Health Fund funded prostheses twice more frequently than men. Prostheses funded by the National Health Fund were used significantly more frequently by patients aged 51-70 years, living in cities and with a higher education level, in comparison to the respondents from other age groups, with different place of residence and education level.
Conclusions. There is correlation between sex, age, place of residence and education level of patients and the frequency of their wearing removable dentures, both patient-paid and funded by the National Health Fund.
Andrzej Bożyk, Joanna Krawczyk, Leszek Szalewski, Emma Kiworkowa and Jolanta Szymańska
Introduction. Caries of deciduous teeth in the population of Polish children is a significant health, social and organizational problem.
Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the dentition of 3- and 4-year-old children in the Mazowieckie Province.
Material and methods. The study comprised 393 kindergarten children aged 3 and 4 years in the Mazowieckie Province, 202 girls and 191 boys, including 159 children aged 3 years and 243 children aged 4 years. In all subjects the state of dentition was assessed. The prevalence of caries was calculated as the percentage of people affected by this disease, and the intensity of dental caries was determined using the dmft index. The results were compared with those that Polish researchers obtained in the 3 – and 4-year-olds after 2000.
Results. In the studied group of 3- and 4-year-olds the prevalence of caries was 62.85%, among girls – 61.88% and among boys – 63.87%. For all subjects the average scores for dmft index were 3.22 and its components dt – 2.72 (decayed teeth), mt – 0.1 (missing teeth), ft – 0.4 (filled teeth).
Conclusions. The prevalence and intensity of dental caries in 3- and 4-year-old children attending kindergartens in the Ma-zowieckie Province is high and close to the national average. It is advisable to increase the preventive and curative measures in this age group of children on dental caries.
Leszek Szalewski, Elżbieta Pietryka-Michałowska and Jolanta Szymańska
Introduction. Properly designed and used denture is conducive to proper rehabilitation of edentulism.
Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and hygiene habits of patients using removable partial dentures (RPDs) including selected sociodemographic characteristics.
Material and methods. The survey comprised 321 individuals wearing RPDs, the residents of the Lublin Province. They were asked about the age, gender, place of residence, education, duration of denture usage, repairs made to RPDs, preparations used for cleansing and disinfection of RPDs, storage at night, causes of visiting the dentist, which was associated with the use of the RPD and the frequency of visits. The results were statistically analyzed.
Results. The average duration of removable partial dentures use was 7.8±5.7 years. The vast majority of respondents cleaned RPDs with a toothpaste – 90.9%, almost 2/3 of the surveyed population – did not disinfect their RPDs, 56.4% people not remove them for the night. Only 3.7% people visited the dentist on regular basis associated with the use of RPDs.
Conclusions. Among people wearing RPDs, too long duration of current RPD usage is confirmed. Moreover, the dentist does not check them regularly because patients do not visit dentists for check-up. RPDs are cleaned using improper preparations and usually are not disinfected. They are inadequately kept at nighttime, if ever removed from the mouth during sleep. Incorrect handling related to the use of removable partial dentures applies to persons regardless of their level of education and place of residence.
Elzbieta Celej-Piszcz, Leszek Szalewski, Przemyslaw Kleinrok and Janusz Borowicz
Objectives. The objective of the research was to define the mechanical properties of currently marketed temporary filling materials. Methods. Eight temporary filling materials: Boston, Dentalon, Protemp II, Revotek LC, Structure 2, Structure 3, UniFast LC, UniFast Trad were used to make 5 samples each of measurements 2 × 2 × 25 mm, in order to define the flexural strength, and 10 rings each of measurements 2 × 5 mm, in order to carry out the Vickers micro-hardness test. After preparation, the samples were stored in distilled water of temperature of 370°C, for 7 days. Subsequently, flexural strength and Vickers hardness testing was undertaken. Results. Composite temporary materials showed considerably better mechanical properties, both in flexural strength and in Vickers micro-hardness testing. Conclusions. the best mechanical properties, both in terms of flexural strength, as well as Vickers micro-hardness test can be observe among composite materials.
Ewa Kuchta, Renata Chałas, Leszek Szalewski, Elżbieta Pietryka-Michałowska and Jolanta Szymańska
Introduction. Evaluation of the oral health among adult Poles carried out in the framework of the “National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants” study and the research results of clinical centers in Poland indicate that dental caries, periodontal diseases and missing teeth are a major health problem.
Aim. The aim of the study was determining the reasons for reporting to the dentist of 35-54-year-old people, the assessment of dental health and prosthetic needs.
Material and methods. The study comprised 154 patients aged 35-54 reporting in 2015 to the dental clinic in Lublin, which offers treatment financed by the National Health Fund or for a fee. Gender, age, the place of residence and the reason for the reporting to the dentist were analyzed. The place of residence was a village, a town of less than 200 thousand inhabitants or the city of more than 200 thousand residents. The reason for reporting to the dental clinic was a check-up visit, toothache or loss of filling. Dental condition was assessed by calculating the DMF index. The prosthetic state and needs were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed.
Results. Most patients reporting to the dental examination were women (59.09%) and residents of a big city (70.78%). More than a half of the patients (55.84%) had a check-up appointment, 25.32% appeared due to the loss of filling, and 18.83% - because of a toothache. The frequency of decay in the study group was 100% and the DMF index values ranged from 2.0 to 32.0, assuming an average of 21.18±5.02, and with the age the DMF index values increased. The highest number of decayed and extracted teeth were found in the rural population. Both residents of big cities and patients who reported for regular check-ups had the biggest number of fillings.
Conclusion. Dental caries is still a major health problem in Polish population aged 35-44. Poor oral health among the adult population in Poland is due to the low health awareness of society. This requires launching large-scale dental educational campaigns and prevention measures among adult Polish citizens, especially in rural areas.
Michał Berezowski, Leszek Szalewski, Krzysztof Włoch and Jolanta Szymańska
Proper oral hygiene is a basis for preventing dental caries and periodontal diseases. The most popular method of mechanical plaque removal is brushing teeth using manual and powered toothbrushes. The review of literature shows that removal of dental calculus using the powered toothbrushes is more effective, what is supported by greater reduction of plaque and symptoms characteristic for soft tissue inflammation. It needs to be underlined that the effectiveness of tooth brushing, regardless of the kind of toothbrush, to a great extent depends on the frequency and technique of brushing, on the time devoted to this hygienic procedure, and on the type of toothbrush bristles.
Beata Kubić-Filiks, Leszek Szalewski, Elżbieta Pietryka-Michałowska, Kamila Fux-Zalewska and Jolanta Szymańska
Introduction. Carelessness in caring for oral cavity in adults may contribute to severity of dental caries, periodontal diseases and diseases of mucous membranes that pose a risk to health of both dental and systemic character.
Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between selected demographic factors and the cause of visiting the dental practitioner and the dental health status in adults.
Material and methods. The study comprised 194 patients, aged 18-34 who visited in 2015 one of the dental offices in Lublin, which offers treatment under the framework of an agreement with the National Health Fund or for a fee. Gender, age, the place of residence and the reason for visiting the dental office were analyzed. The place of residence was a village, a town of less than 200 thousand inhabitants or the city of more than 200 thousand inhabitants. The reason for visiting the dental office was a checkup visit, loss of filling or a toothache. Dental condition was assessed by calculating the DMF index. The results were statistically analyzed.
Results. In the group of respondents, women accounted for 53.62%, and men – 45.88%. The prevalence of dental caries was 100% and the incidence expressed by the mean DMF index was 14.64±5.78, and increased with age. The main reason for visiting the dentist for 65.46% of respondents was a check-up visit, for 17.53% – loss of filling and for 17.01% – a toothache. The lowest incidence of tooth decay was found in people visiting the dentist for a check-up, higher in patients appearing with the loss of filling and toothache.
Conclusions. A high percentage of people visiting the dentist because of toothache, confirms the low level of health-related knowledge in adult patients. High incidence of tooth decay proves the need to intensify preventive measures against the carious disease in adults. It is necessary to intensify educational activities and programs addressed to the adult part of Polish society to prevent the development of dental caries.
Lidia Karwacka, Aneta Kamińska, Dorota Wójcik, Anna Szabelska, Justyna Batkowska, Janusz Borowicz and Leszek Szalewski
Introduction. The fashion for a tan appeared at the beginning of the twentieth century, in the era of technological progress and urbanization with medical knowledge about heliotherapy and the promotion of the tan by fashion designer Coco Chanel being a contributing factor in it. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the UV to the first group of carcinogens but despite these warnings the increase in exposure to UV radiation has been seen in recent years. New solariums have been created around the world so that people can enjoy a tan all year round, no matter what the weather conditions are.
Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the attitudes and behaviors related to UV radiation exposure among residents of Łęczna.
Material and methods. A survey conducted among 180 people inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes and behaviours associated with exposure to UV radiation while tanning.
Results. Statistical analysis of the data obtained in the study showed that the socio-demographic characteristics affect the attitudes and behaviour associated with exposure to UV radiation. Suntan is believed to be significantly more fashionable among women, people with secondary education who have no permanent relationships.
Conclusion. There is a need for preventive actions and educational programs concerning the dangers of UV radiation in order to develop not only knowledge but also the correct behaviour in society.