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Leszek Smolarek

Human Reliability at Ship Safety Consideration

Human reliability is one of main factors which influence safety at maritime transport. The tendency of decreasing the crew number can growth the human fatigue factor. So it's necessary to analyze human fatigue and human reliability for seaman as factors which can cause the ship catastrophe.

Open access

Leszek Smolarek

Dimensioning the Navigational Safety in Maritime Transport

In the paper some problems of quantitive description of traffic safety in maritime transport are presented. Basic definitions and a stochastic approach to concept of traffic safety in transport are given. The stochastic method of dimensioning traffic safety, useful in short-term traffic control, is proposed.

Open access

Natalia Stasiak and Leszek Smolarek

Abstract

The article presents an analysis of the impact of transport on heavy urban traffic on Wharf Kwiatkowski using program PTV Vissim. The data for analysis were taken from the Road and Greenery in Gdynia from program PTV Visum. Attention has been focused on vehicle traffic in the afternoon the top of its intensity. Model of Kwiatkowskiego Wharf, made entirely in the PTV VISSIM, was used for microscopic simulation of traffic. With its help, it was possible to find and analyze the behavior of each autonomous vehicle and interactions on the Web. For the analysis was used as a program of traffic lights currency at these junctions. The analysis results of simulation in the PTV VISSIM are related to the movement of the two structures. The first assumes that the route will move cars and trucks, taking into account their share in the network based on the intensity of traffic during peak hours of the afternoon, the second consisted only of cars. The results presented are based on measuring the time of travel and delays on specific relationships and the average length of queues at selected inlets. The results of analysis and simulation tests were subjected to statistical analysis.

Open access

Smolarek Leszek and Ziemska Monika

Abstract

The theme of the publication is to show the influence of human factor on traffic conditions during the traffic incident. The publication also depicts the functionality of the model at which the simulation was performed. The model was constructed in the VISSIM and VISUM software also using Visual Basic for Applications – Excel, [8,9]. By coordinating programs VBA and VISSIM was automated turned on or off the incident as well as turned on or off the VMS with information about the proposed of the alternative route. The additional differentiation of the percentage of drivers using the information displayed enabled to compare the data with identical external conditions influencing at traffic. For statistical analysis of data was used statistical program Statgraphics Centurion which made possible to build a model describing the impact of the behavior of drivers on traffic conditions. It is an innovative approach to modeling the impact on traffic conditions accepted by drivers information transmitted on the boards.

Open access

Justyna Smolarek and Leszek Marynowski

ABSTRACT

Aromatic hydrocarbons are present in the fossil wood samples in relatively small amounts. In almost all of the tested samples the dominating aromatic hydrocarbon is perylene and its methyl and dimethyl derivatives. The most important biomarkers present in the aromatic fraction are dehydroabietane, siomonellite and retene, compounds characteristic for conifers. The distribution of discussed compounds is highly variable due to such early diagenetic processes affecting the wood as oxidation and the activity of microorganisms. MPI1 parameter values (methylphenanthrene index) for the majority of the samples are in the range of 0.1 to 0.5, which results in the highly variable values of Rc (converted value of vitrinite reflectance) ranging from 0.45 to 0.70%. Such values suggest that MPI1 parameter is not useful as maturity parameter in case of Middle Jurassic ore-bearing clays, even if measured strictly on terrestrial organic matter (OM). As a result of weathering processes (oxidation) the distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons changes. In the oxidized samples the amount of aromatic hydrocarbons, both polycyclic as well as aromatic biomarkers decreases.

Open access

Joanna Wachnicka and Leszek Smolarek

Abstract

In this research, the effect of the European regional differences on the risk of been killed in road accident in these regions is investigated. Factors which differentiate regions can be described as automotive, economic, infrastructural, demographic, geographic. Analyzed risk, counted as regional fatality rate was modeled by the Poisson model. Because of regional diversity of Poisson distribution parameters, the Poisson distribution was adopted. The multivariate multilevel model was developed, in order to asses combined effects of different factors on road safety level in regions. Such models could be helpful to forecast such risk on the regional level and focus safety actions precisely for region, because the national actions and their results differentiate in regions so far.

Open access

Justyna Smolarek, Leszek Marynowski and Wiesław Trela

Abstract

The aim of this research is to reconstruct palaeoredox conditions during sedimentation of the Jeleniów Claystone Formation deposits, using framboid pyrite diameter measurements. Analysis of pyrite framboids diameter distribution is an effective method in the palaeoenvironmental interpretation which allow for a more detailed insight into the redox conditions, and thus the distinction between euxinic, dysoxic and anoxic conditions. Most of the samples is characterized by framboid indicators typical for anoxic/euxinic conditions in the water column, with average (mean) values ranging from 5.29 to 6.02 μm and quite low standard deviation (SD) values ranging from 1.49 to 3.0. The remaining samples have shown slightly higher values of framboid diameter typical for upper dysoxic conditions, with average values (6.37 to 7.20 μm) and low standard deviation (SD) values (1.88 to 2.88). From the depth of 75.5 m till the shallowest part of the Jeleniów Claystone Formation, two samples have been examined and no framboids has been detected. Because secondary weathering should be excluded, the lack of framboids possibly indicates oxic conditions in the water column. Oxic conditions continue within the Wólka Formation based on the lack of framboids in the ZB 51.6 sample

Open access

Justyna Smolarek, Leszek Marynowski, Karol Spunda and Wiesław Trela

Abstract

A number of independent methods have been used to measure the thermal maturity of Silurian rocks from the Holy Cross Mountains in Poland. Black shales are characterized by diverse TOC values varying from 0.24-7.85%. Having calculated vitrinite equivalent reflectance using three different formulas, we propose that the most applicable values for the Silurian rocks are those based on Schmidt et al. (2015) equation. Based on this formula, the values range from % 0.71 VReqvVLR (the vitrinite equivalent reflectance of the vitrinite-like macerals) to % 1.96 VReqvVLR. Alternative, complementary methods including Rock Eval pyrolysis and parameters based on organic compounds (CPI, Pr/n-C17, Ph/n-C18, MPI1, and MDR) from extracts did not prove adequate as universal thermal maturity indicators. We have confirmed previous suggestions that Llandovery shales are the most likely Silurian source rocks for the generation of hydrocarbons in the HCM.