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Open access

Agnieszka Hejduk and Leszek Hejduk

Abstract

Thermal and snow conditions of winters and winter floods on example of Zagożdżonka River. Thermal and snowy conditions in Zagożdżonka River catchment during hydrological years 2003-2013 and winter floods are presented in paper. The meteorological and hydrological data, such as maximum, minimum, mean diurnal air temperatures, daily snow cover depth, and water discharge, collected at Czarna station (WULS-SGGW) have been used. Meteorological conditions were analyzed using indexes proposed by Paczos. Temperate cold and extraordinarily low snowy winters has dominated in Zagożdżonka catchment in presented period of time. Winter floods as a result of snowmelt have been observed almost each year, except 2008 when winter was mild and extremely low snowy. The relation between winter severity index (WOz) and winter snowiness index (WSn) has been estimated, as well as the relation between winter snowiness index and maximum discharge (Qmax).

Open access

Anna Baryła and Leszek Hejduk

The effect of plant cover on the mechanical composition of eroded soil

Water erosion causes migration of the finest soil particles and chemical compounds. The paper attempts to compare the mechanical composition of sediments susceptible to water erosion on the hillslopes with different cover crops. The research was conducted on the experimental plots in Puczniew. Its results showed that the composition of the sediment washed out from the fallow land significantly differed from that washed out from the plots with grass and barley crops. In the case of fallow land, soil particles were markedly larger. This might indicate the existence of a very hard mineral fraction.

Open access

Agnieszka Hejduk and Leszek Hejduk

Abstract

Variability of suspended sediment grain size distribution in winter floods. The work presents the results of research concern variability of suspended sediment grain size, transported during the winter floods in agricultural catchment, in the period of hydrological years 2012-2015. The information about grain size distribution from nine winter flood events were collected over the study period, which allowed to analyze the variability of suspended sediment particle size during the various events. Grain size of sediment was determined using a laser particle size analyzer Mastersizer Microplus from Malvern Instruments Ltd. Variability of individual particle size classes were observed in each flood. Sand fraction dominated in seven of nine measured events. There was no significant increase of suspended sediment size in relation to the maximum of discharge. It can be explain by a relatively low discharge of recorded events. The percentage of material classified as clay (<4 μm) ranged from 0.08 to 1.01%, silt-sized material (>4 and <63 μm) ranged between 9.31 and 67.17% and sand-size material (>63 μm) ranged from 32.01 to 90.61%. The relationship between the particle size and the discharge requires further studies. The diameter d10, d50 and d90 and a standard deviation were calculated for each flood. Mean values of d50 for individual flood ranged between 41.05 and 191.32 μm with average value of 99.01 μm and average standard deviation of 32.57.

Open access

Karolina Sawa, Leszek Hejduk, Johannes Deelstra and Lillian Øygarden

Nutrient output from rural areas on the example of two catchments Skuterud and Zagożdżonka

In this paper, two rural catchment - the Zagożdżonka catchment in Poland and the Skuterud catchment in Aas, Akershus county in Norway are compared. In addition to the general description, more in particular information, runoff, N-NO3 load, P-PO4 load, total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in streams are compared. The data compared are from 1993 to 1995 in Zagożdżonka catchment and from 1994-1996 from Skuterud catchment. The average concentration of N-NO3 in Zagożdżonka River in the period was 0.85 mg·l-1 and the mean concentration of P-PO4 was 0.13 mg·l-1. In the stream in Skuterud catchment the average concentration of N-NO3 was 4.95 mg·l-1 and the mean concentration of P-PO4 was 0.04 mg·l-1. For both catchments the same data were also compared for the 2008. In Skuterud catchment the highest concentration of nutrients occurred in November, March and April, which was connected to the higher runoff from agricultural areas during the snowmelt period. In Zagożdżonka catchment the highest concentration of nutrients was noted in March, April and in summer time, which was connected to periods with high amounts of precipitation. Comparison of the two rural catchments showed many differences in applied measurement methods for water sampling, water measurement, discharge measurement, runoff amounts and management practices, which had an effect on results of monitoring program. The compared data can be useful to predict the development of future environmental conditions for example water quality. It can also be useful for predict how nutrient runoff will be in future. What is more the different conditions for runoff in Skuterud and Zagożdżonka then different measures are needed.

Open access

Kazimierz Banasik, Adam Krajewski, Anna Sikorska and Leszek Hejduk

Abstract

Runoff estimation is a key component in various hydrological considerations. Estimation of storm runoff is especially important for the effective design of hydraulic and road structures, for the flood flow management, as well as for the analysis of land use changes, i.e. urbanization or low impact development of urban areas. The curve number (CN) method, developed by Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture for predicting the flood runoff depth from ungauged catchments, has been in continuous use for ca. 60 years. This method has not been extensively tested in Poland, especially in small urban catchments, because of lack of data. In this study, 39 rainfall-runoff events, collected during four years (2009–2012) in a small (A=28.7 km2), urban catchment of Służew Creek in southwest part of Warsaw were used, with the aim of determining the CNs and to check its applicability to ungauged urban areas. The parameters CN, estimated empirically, vary from 65.1 to 95.0, decreasing with rainfall size and, when sorted rainfall and runoff separately, reaching the value from 67 to 74 for large rainfall events.

Open access

Abdulvahed Khaledi Darvishan, Kazimierz Banasik, Seyed Hamidreza Sadeghi, Leila Gholami and Leszek Hejduk

Abstract

Although the possibility of measuring and analysing all parts of the rainfall, infiltration, runoff, and erosion process as a natural hydrologic cycle in field conditions is still one of the more unattainable goals in the hydrological sciences, it can be accomplished in laboratory conditions as a way to understand the whole process. The initial moisture content is one of the most effective factors on soil infiltration, runoff, and erosion responses. The present research was conducted on a 2 m2 laboratory plot at a slope of 9% on a typical sandy-loam soil. The effects of the initial soil moisture content on the infiltration, runoff, and erosion processes were studied at four levels of initial soil moisture content (12, 25, 33, and 40 volumetric percentage) and two rainfall intensities (60 and 120 mm h-1). The results showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation between rainfall intensity and downstream splash, with r = 0.87. The results reflected the theory of hydrological responses, showing significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations with r =-0.93, 0.98, -0.83, 0.88, and 0.73 between the initial soil moisture content and the time-to-runoff, runoff coefficient, drainage as a part of the infiltrated water, downstream splash, and total outflow sediment, respectively.

Open access

Adam Krajewski, Hyosang Lee, Leszek Hejduk and Kazimierz Banasik

Abstract

Predicted small catchment responses to heavy rainfalls with SEGMO and two sets of model parameters. The study tests the ability of hydrological part of SEGMO (SedimentGraph Model), i.e. lumped parametric rainfall-runoff procedure of SEGMO to simulate design storm runoff in a Korean catchment. The aim of the investigation is to predict responses of small catchment of the Jeungpyeong river, located in central part of South Korea, with the area of 133.6 km2, to 100-year rainfall events, applying SEGMO and using two parallel approaches for model parameter estimation. The fi rst approach is based on catchment characteristics and USDA-SCS procedures, which is suitable for ungauged basins, and the other one is based on rainfall-runoff measurements. The way of estimation of model parameters has been demonstrated. Finally, the model outputs are compared. The difference in largest peak discharges obtained from SEGMO with the two sets of model parameters, i.e. when estimated on the base of catchment characteristics and USDA-SCS procedures, and on the base of rainfall-runoff measurements were relatively small, approaching 37%. This investigation can be seen as checking the uncertainties in model parameter estimation and their infl uence on fl ood fl ows.

Open access

Leila Gholami, Kazimierz Banasik, Seyed Hamidreza Sadeghi, Abdulvahed Khaledi Darvishan and Leszek Hejduk

Abstract

Mulches have extraordinary potential in reducing surface runoff, increasing infiltration of water into the soil and decreasing soil erosion. The straw mulches as a biological material, has the ability to be a significant physical barrier against the impact of raindrops and reduce the detachment of soil aggregates. The present study is an attempt to determine the efficiency of straw mulch as conservation treatment in changes in the splash erosion, time-to-runoff, runoff coefficient, infiltration coefficient, time-to-drainage, drainage coefficient, sediment concentration and soil loss. The laboratory experiments have been conducted for sandy-loam soil taken from deforested area, about 15 km of Warsaw west, Poland under lab conditions with simulated rainfall intensities of 60 and 120 mmh–1, in 4 soil moistures of 12, 25, 33 and 40% and the slope of 9%. Compared with bare treatments, results of straw mulch application showed the significant conservation effects on splash erosion, runoff coefficient, sediment concentration and soil loss and significant enhancement effects on infiltration and drainage. The results of Spearman-Rho correlation showed the significant (p < 0.05) correlation with r = –0.873, 0.873, 0.878 and 0.764 between rainfall intensity and drainage coefficient, downstream splash, sediment concentration and soil loss and with r = –0.976, 0.927 and –0.927 between initial soil moisture content and time-to-runoff, runoff coefficient and infiltration coefficient, respectively.