The article describes a method for analyzing and solving problem situations with the use of Su-Field models and 76 inventive standards. These tools are part of the “Theory of Inventive Problem Solving”. The author has presented the basic concepts of Su-Field models, including in the compilation of the most commonly used substances their fields and types of interactions in Su-Field models. The inventive standards have also been presented and grouped. Attempts have been made to solve two undesirable situations that occur during the operation of a complex technical system, which is the fuel injector of the self-ignition engine. Problem situations related to insufficient impact were modelled - too low tightening of the injector spring, and negative (harmful) interaction - erosive wear of the holes in the atomizer nozzle. Using the inventive standards of Class-1 and Class-2, general solutions to these problems have been found. After the transformation, exemplary detailed ways of solving the aforementioned problems have been presented in order to improve the design of the injector for these models. A summary and comments on the applicability of the presented methodology, regarding such complex technical systems, have also been presented.
In this paper, the authors have discussed the subject of fire and explosion hazards during the operation of a modern ship's high-power internal combustion engines. The causes of the occurrence of and the methods of preventing explosions in the starting manifolds of modern piston combustion engines equipped with a pneumatic starting system, with starting valves on the cylinder heads, have been specified. The concept of an active system for monitoring the technical condition of the starting valves has been presented in order to quickly diagnose leakages and reduce the risk of explosion. A conceptual design of a prototype of a non-invasive, new generation leak detector for starting valves and its technical design have been presented. Exemplary implementations of the prototype detector have been shown and its selected functionalities have been discussed. This paper has ended with an assessment of the possibility of further development and the applications of this device.
A graph of the changes in an engine’s operating speed can be used to assess the quality of the combustion in its cylinders. In this paper, the authors carried out tests on a Buckau-Wolf R8VD-136 ship engine, which was directly driving the propeller. This engine is owned by the Laboratory of Marine Engine Rooms at the Maritime University of Szczecin. For standard rotational speeds ranging from 200 to 280 rpm, with increments of 20 rpm, the authors measured the changes in the instantaneous speed for the engine’s normal operating conditions (reference graphs) as well as with one of the cylinders being out of operation. A no-combustion situation was successively introduced into each cylinder for each preset rotational speed. The obtained graphs of the instantaneous speed were then used to determine certain quantitative indicators, which the authors believe can provide information about the technical condition of the engine. The analysis concerned the averaged graphs of the speed under the conditions set for five consecutive engine operating cycles. The indicators that were calculated included the maximum difference in the speed over the engine’s full operating cycle, the uniformity of the engine speed and the differential speed area factor, the latter a term that has been proposed by the authors. The values of the individual indicators that were obtained from the reference graphs and the graphs with no combustion in one of the cylinders were compared. All indicators are sensitive to cylinder misfire. Conclusions were then drawn on the usefulness of these indicators in assessing the condition of an engine.
The paper presents a review of the basic literature on the determination of head injury effects. Introduction to the subject of Head Injury Criterion (HIC) applications as likelihood of head injury measures was made. Individual levels of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) were listed as a representation of the consequences of head injury. Prasad and Mertz curves describing the relationship between the HIC value and the probability of injury for a given AIS level were presented. Exponential models, developed by the authors, representing individual curves were presented. The probability of head injuries at different AIS levels was estimated for selected case studies presented in the literature devoted to human workplace safety. The analysis was concluded with debate and conclusions on the use of the proposed models.
The paper presents an example of qualitative and quantitative application of a method for assessing component importance of a reliability structure in the case of a complex technical system based on the example of the subsystem of a marine power plant, that is, a lube oil system for sealing a stern tube. An example of the importance of the analysis considered in terms of not only reliability but also safety (impact of a component failure on human, machine and the environmental safety). Safety is usually analyzed in terms of quality, so the approach of trying to combine quantitative and qualitative estimation has been called a qualitative and quantitative method. A two - criteria importance of components according to the reliability criteria and safety criteria have been determined. The directions for further research have been outlined.
Anticipatory Failure Determination (AFD) is a tool used in the TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) methodology. This article introduces its concept and describes the process of AFD in different versions of the method. The article presents the application of the AFD method at a very early state of a system’s development, i.e. its concept formulation stage, which corresponds to a technology readiness level (TRL) equal to 2. The system under analysis is a set of devices used to reduce displacement ship hull resistance. The system was modelled using functional analysis. An analysis of system resources was then carried out. Possible direct, indirect, and accident-related failures were identified. A multi-criteria analysis of the causes of system failures was conducted from which the top 10 potential failures were selected. Observations were made on the applicability of AFD in respect to systems not yet implemented.
This article presents tools used in the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) which are useful when assessing the evolution direction of technical systems. The following matters are discussed: the S-shaped curve, laws (trends and lines) of the evolution of technical systems, multi-screen diagrams, as well as analysis of evolutionary potential. Inventive laws formulated by Gienrich Altshuller as well as laws previously formulated by a Polish writer and promoter of knowledge, Aleksander Głowacki, writing under the pen name Bolesław Prus, have been presented. Finally the innovation roadmaps have been shown. The use of individual tools has been supported by practical examples taken from research performed by the authors, and the usefulness of individual methods was evaluated. All methods have been compared and evaluated.
The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland’s innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).
This article presents topics concerning fire hazards during the use of low-speed diesel engines in marine vehicles. The causes and effects of fires in the spaces of scavenge air receivers in marine diesel engines are presented. Methods to prevent and fight these fires are shown, including the operating procedures required from ship engine room operators. The possibility of training personnel to apply the abovementioned procedures during operation using simulations of a Kongsberg MC-90 IVship engine room is presented. Simulations were conducted which included a fire in a scavenge air receiver occurring during the operation of a MAN B&W 5L90MC main engine, with loads corresponding to 50% and 100% of the machine’s recommended setting.
Poland has a strong ambition to evolve rapidly into a knowledge-driven economy. Since 2004, it has been the largest beneficiary of European Union cohesion policy funds among all member states. Between 2007 and 2013, Poland was allocated approximately EUR 67 billion, whereas for 2014-2020 the EU budget earmarked EUR 82.5 billion for Polish cohesion policy. This means that in the coming years, Poland’s R&D intensity will grow. But the question remains: is 27 years of free market economy enough to enable a country’s economy to become knowledge-based ? This paper offers an analysis of Polish R&D expenditures and investments in terms of their sources (business, government or higher education sectors), types (European Union or state aid) and areas of support (infrastructure, education or innovation). It also characterises the Polish R&D market with its strengths and weaknesses. Then, it examines the process of technology transfer in Poland, comparing it to best practice. Finally, the paper lays out the barriers to effective commercialisation that need to be overcome, and attempts to answer the question raised in its title.