The article describes a method for analyzing and solving problem situations with the use of Su-Field models and 76 inventive standards. These tools are part of the “Theory of Inventive Problem Solving”. The author has presented the basic concepts of Su-Field models, including in the compilation of the most commonly used substances their fields and types of interactions in Su-Field models. The inventive standards have also been presented and grouped. Attempts have been made to solve two undesirable situations that occur during the operation of a complex technical system, which is the fuel injector of the self-ignition engine. Problem situations related to insufficient impact were modelled - too low tightening of the injector spring, and negative (harmful) interaction - erosive wear of the holes in the atomizer nozzle. Using the inventive standards of Class-1 and Class-2, general solutions to these problems have been found. After the transformation, exemplary detailed ways of solving the aforementioned problems have been presented in order to improve the design of the injector for these models. A summary and comments on the applicability of the presented methodology, regarding such complex technical systems, have also been presented.
The paper presents an example of qualitative and quantitative application of a method for assessing component importance of a reliability structure in the case of a complex technical system based on the example of the subsystem of a marine power plant, that is, a lube oil system for sealing a stern tube. An example of the importance of the analysis considered in terms of not only reliability but also safety (impact of a component failure on human, machine and the environmental safety). Safety is usually analyzed in terms of quality, so the approach of trying to combine quantitative and qualitative estimation has been called a qualitative and quantitative method. A two - criteria importance of components according to the reliability criteria and safety criteria have been determined. The directions for further research have been outlined.
In this paper, the authors have discussed the subject of fire and explosion hazards during the operation of a modern ship's high-power internal combustion engines. The causes of the occurrence of and the methods of preventing explosions in the starting manifolds of modern piston combustion engines equipped with a pneumatic starting system, with starting valves on the cylinder heads, have been specified. The concept of an active system for monitoring the technical condition of the starting valves has been presented in order to quickly diagnose leakages and reduce the risk of explosion. A conceptual design of a prototype of a non-invasive, new generation leak detector for starting valves and its technical design have been presented. Exemplary implementations of the prototype detector have been shown and its selected functionalities have been discussed. This paper has ended with an assessment of the possibility of further development and the applications of this device.
Leszek Chybowski, Katarzyna Gawdzińska and Valeri Souchkov
Anticipatory Failure Determination (AFD) is a tool used in the TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) methodology. This article introduces its concept and describes the process of AFD in different versions of the method. The article presents the application of the AFD method at a very early state of a system’s development, i.e. its concept formulation stage, which corresponds to a technology readiness level (TRL) equal to 2. The system under analysis is a set of devices used to reduce displacement ship hull resistance. The system was modelled using functional analysis. An analysis of system resources was then carried out. Possible direct, indirect, and accident-related failures were identified. A multi-criteria analysis of the causes of system failures was conducted from which the top 10 potential failures were selected. Observations were made on the applicability of AFD in respect to systems not yet implemented.
This article presents tools used in the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) which are useful when assessing the evolution direction of technical systems. The following matters are discussed: the S-shaped curve, laws (trends and lines) of the evolution of technical systems, multi-screen diagrams, as well as analysis of evolutionary potential. Inventive laws formulated by Gienrich Altshuller as well as laws previously formulated by a Polish writer and promoter of knowledge, Aleksander Głowacki, writing under the pen name Bolesław Prus, have been presented. Finally the innovation roadmaps have been shown. The use of individual tools has been supported by practical examples taken from research performed by the authors, and the usefulness of individual methods was evaluated. All methods have been compared and evaluated.
Dorota Chybowska, Leszek Chybowski and Valeri Souchkov
Poland has a strong ambition to evolve rapidly into a knowledge-driven economy. Since 2004, it has been the largest beneficiary of European Union cohesion policy funds among all member states. Between 2007 and 2013, Poland was allocated approximately EUR 67 billion, whereas for 2014-2020 the EU budget earmarked EUR 82.5 billion for Polish cohesion policy. This means that in the coming years, Poland’s R&D intensity will grow. But the question remains: is 27 years of free market economy enough to enable a country’s economy to become knowledge-based ? This paper offers an analysis of Polish R&D expenditures and investments in terms of their sources (business, government or higher education sectors), types (European Union or state aid) and areas of support (infrastructure, education or innovation). It also characterises the Polish R&D market with its strengths and weaknesses. Then, it examines the process of technology transfer in Poland, comparing it to best practice. Finally, the paper lays out the barriers to effective commercialisation that need to be overcome, and attempts to answer the question raised in its title.
Dorota Chybowska, Leszek Chybowski and Valeri Souchkov
The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland’s innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).
Leszek Chybowski, Katarzyna Gawdzińska and Bogusz Wiśnicki
The paper presents an improved methodology of analysing the qualitative importance of components in the functional and reliability structures of the system. We present basic importance measures, i.e. the Birnbaum’s structural measure, the order of the smallest minimal cut-set, the repetition count of an i-th event in the Fault Tree and the streams measure. A subsystem of circulation pumps and fuel heaters in the main engine fuel supply system of a container vessel illustrates the qualitative importance analysis. We constructed a functional model and a Fault Tree which we analysed using qualitative measures. Additionally, we compared the calculated measures and introduced corrected measures as a tool for improving the analysis. We proposed scaled measures and a common measure taking into account the location of the component in the reliability and functional structures. Finally, we proposed an area where the measures could be applied.
Bogusz Wiśnicki, Leszek Chybowski and Maksymilian Czarnecki
The article presents a method for evaluating the efficiency of port container terminals. The research was conducted for nine European terminals which use different handling technologies. The terminals have been divided due to the level of automation of transport processes. In the efficiency research DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) method is applied, that was previously used in studies of the relative productivity in the industry. This method allows you to multicriteria process analysis based on the properly selected production system model processing input parameters on output. Conclusions from analysis can be a ground for making a decision on organizational or investment issues.
Aiming to strengthen cooperation between scientific entities and enterprises and to overcome related obstacles, the authors propose to create a mechanism of incentives called BIZ-TRIZ, which is an abbreviation for “TRIZ for Business”. This mechanism is used to support cooperation between scientific entities and companies. Close cooperation is achieved by implementing R&D&I services, which is the responsibility of the scientific unit operating for the benefit of the companies involved. Research services are used together with the scientific instrument that reflects achievements in the modern theory of innovative problem solving (TRIZ). The analysis was made using the Maritime University of Szczecin and SME-type companies as an example. This paper describes the basic assumptions concerning the implementation of the BIZ-TRIZ mechanism. Also, it presents the use of SWOT analysis, needs/stakeholder analysis and risk analysis for the implementation of the BIZ-TRIZ mechanism. The paper describes preventative actions for the most important implementation risks and discusses the results of the analyses. Finally, it introduces the main conclusions regarding the purpose of implementing the BIZ-TRIZ mechanism.