This paper presents the results of a numerical simulation of a slope deformation process. The landslide slope “Grabina” in Koronowo near Bydgoszcz (Poland) serves as an example. A slope profile located in the central part of the slope, between the main scarp and the toe of the landslide, was selected. The average dip of the slope is about 10, and its length is approximately 55 m.
Elasticity, plasticity and viscosity properties were taken into account in the model of the soil mass that composes the slope. The visco-elastic properties are described by the Burgers model (Mainardi and Spada 2011), and the plastic ones by the Coulomb-Mohr law. A numerical simulation was carried out by the computer code FLAC2D in the plane strain state with the assumption of the Lagrange routine. The model was discretized taking into account the results of inclinometric measurements, which proved that the slide movement was concentrated in a narrow loam zone of 0.5–1.0 m thickness.
No tests of the viscosity parameters were performed, so they were determined by the back analysis and a trial and error method. The calculation results were verified by comparison with the displacement measured by the inclinometric method in three boreholes. The analysis performed demonstrated the possibility of approximating and forecasting landslide displacements by the combined Burgers and Coulomb-Mohr models.
The paper presents the results of numerical calculations of the stability and deformation process of several idealized slopes performed by the elasto-plastic finite difference method, using the commercial codes FLAC3D and FLAC2D. The results of 3D analysis of these slopes are compared with those obtained by the 2D method. The behaviour of slopes of different shapes and inclinations was analyzed. The calculations were carried out for flat, concave and convex slopes inclined at 30°, 45° and 60°, taking into account the influence of the lateral constraints of the slope. Two variants of the medium were analysed, i.e. the mass with no friction and with no cohesion. A comparison of 3D calculation results with those obtained by the 2D limit equilibrium analysis indicates that the 3D approach produces almost always higher safety factors than does the 2D method.
An analysis was carried out to determine the influence of landslide process at a few meters depth under the dune surface on the rebuilding of the dune. In the first step, calculations were done using the XBEACH model to determine seabed rebuilding as well as shore and dune undercutting for the assumed hydrologic and hydrodynamic conditions. Next, the obtained tachymetric profile of the dune and beach was fed into the FLAC2D program, and calculations of stress distribution, displacements and stability conditions were made. In this way, landslide movement was identified. The theoretical investigations clearly prove that waves attacking the dune not only cause surface erosion, but also trigger a landslide within the dune mass to a maximum depth of about 5 m. It results in a lowering of the dune crown by about 0:6 ÷ 0:7 m. Numerical models such as XBEACH, SBEACH or CSHORE do not take into account landslide occurrence, and thus underestimate dune erosion.
The paper presents the principles of the slope reprofiling and proves the effectiveness of this stabilization measure. The case study of two adjacent landslides in the National Road 52 “Carnica” in the Tagliamento River valley, the Carnian Alps (46°23′49″N, 12°42′51″E) are the example allowing for illustration of this approach. The phenomena have been studied for more than a decade, making it possible to carry out a detailed geological and geomorphological reconstruction. That was done on the basis of a large amount of monitoring data collected during that period. Since the landslides are threatening an important road, countermeasure works to ameliorate the stability conditions of the slides need to be designed. The paper focuses on the creation of a numerical model consistent with monitoring data and capable of reconstructing the dynamics of both landslides. Two cross-sections, one for each landslide, were selected for the analysis. The geometry of the slip surface was determined on the basis of control points, such as slip surface readings from inclinometers, and geomorphological evidence for the contour. The FLAC2D code was used to evaluate the current stability of these landslides and to determine the effectiveness of changing the slope geometry by removing material from the upper part of the slope and putting it to the lowest part as reinforcement.