The paper describes the structural design of a laboratory device that allows for presenting operation, simulating work procedures and checking functionality of the elevator “rope sensors” when equalizing different tensile forces in partial ropes of a rope system of traction elevators. The laboratory device is modified for checking operations of commonly used rope sensors. In an overwhelming number of cases, elevator technicians use them for setting up the unequally distributed tensile forces in elevator ropes. The device is equipped with three, mutually attached pulleys, over which the rope is installed. The unknown tensile force in the rope is determined by an “indirect method”, i.e. from the resultant of the forces of the rope bent over the pulleys, which have an effect on the force sensor. The tensile force along the rope axis can be determined numerically, but also experimentally, from the inclination angle of the rope installed on the pulleys, diameter of the pulleys, diameter of the rope and the force detected by the force sensor of the stretched rope. The paper presents experimentally obtained tensile force values at the rope sensor, deduced from stretching the rope. The paper also describes the procedure for determining the measured load in the rope by rope sensors of the SWR, SWK and RMT-1 types based on the variable axial force in the rope.
This article deals with the adjustment of a 3D printer for laser engraving and material cutting. The print head can be fitted with a solid laser diode module, which achieves a compact size while retaining its useful power. Two paths lead to the use of such a concept. It is possible to equip the existing print head with a module, which also brings a number of disadvantages such as, for example, the reduction of the printing space or the need for a suitable mounting design. A more elegant solution is to consider this in the design of a 3D printer and design a system to exchange the print heads for 3D printing and laser engraving. Such a solution allows full utilization of the workspace and simple installation of the effector for the required type of work. According to the installed power of the laser diode, it is possible not only to engrave but also cut material such as thin wood, veneer or acrylic glass. The use of such a machine is not only for graphic elements but for the creation of various stencils, boxes or simple models, which can be made up of plastic-burning pieces. The laser module is controlled by a driver, which is designed for the device. This is connected to a 3D printer control board. It is, therefore, necessary for the control board to have at least two pins, which can be controlled after adjusting the control firmware. Most laser modules are normally equipped with an adjustable lens, which is used to concentrate the focus of a laser for the given distance against the worktop. Thus, the modified 3D printer can perform its function as a multi-purpose CNC machine, while a basic platform similar for both devices is used.