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Andi Abeshi, Alice Bruson, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Usher syndrome (USH). USH is mostly transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner and is caused by variations in the ADGRV1, CDH23, CIB2, CLRN1, HARS, MYO7A, PCDH15, PDZD7, USH1C, USH1G, USH2A, WHRN genes. Prevalence is estimated to be 1:30,000. Clinical diagnosis is based on audiogram, vestibular tests, visual acuity test, fundus examination, color test, optical coherence tomography and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Alessandra Zulian, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Senior- Loken syndrome (SLSN). SLSN is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, has a prevalence of one in a million, and is caused by variations in CEP164, CEP290, INVS, IQCB1, NPHP1, NPHP3, NPHP4, SDCCAG8, TRAF3IP1 and WDR19 genes. Clinical diagnosis is based on kidney (urine analysis, abdominal ultrasound, kidney function) and eye assessment (visual acuity test, fundus examination, refraction defects, color testing and electroretinography). The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Pamela Coppola, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Mendelian myopia (MM), a large and heterogeneous group of inherited refraction disorders. Variations in the SLC39A5, SCO2 and COL2A1 genes have an autosomal dominant transmission, whereas those in the LRPAP1, P3H2, LRP2 and SLITRK6 genes have autosomal recessive transmission. The prevalence of MM is currently unknown. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, family history, ophthalmological examination and other tests depending on complications. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Francesca Fanelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Inherited eye misalignment (IEM). Forms of IEM associated with variations in the SALL4, CHN1, TUBB3 and KIF21A genes have autosomal dominant inheritance, whereas those associated with variations in the ROBO3, PHOX2A, HOXA1 and HOXB1 genes have autosomal recessive inheritance. The prevalence of MS is currently unknown. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, family history, visual acuity testing and fundus examination. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Carla Marinelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for ocular coloboma (COI). COI is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner associated with variations in the PAX6, ABCB6 and FZD5 genes and in an autosomal recessive manner associated with variations in the SALL2 gene. Overall prevalence is 1 per 100,000 live births. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmogical examination, family history, fundus examination and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Alice Bruson, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for color vision deficiency (CVD). Deuteranopia affects 1 in 12 males and is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. It is associated with variations in the OPN1LW (OMIM gene: 300822; OMIM disease: 303900) and OPN1MW (OMIM gene: 300821; OMIM disease: 303800) genes. Tritanopia has a prevalence of 1 in 10 000, is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, and is related to variations in the OPN1SW (OMIM gene: 613522; OMIM disease: 190900) gene. Blue cone monochromatism has a prevalence of 1 in 100 000, is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner and is related to mutations in the OPN1LW (OMIM gene: 300822; OMIM disease: 303700) and OPN1MW (OMIM gene: 300821; OMIM disease: 303700) genes. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmogical examination, family history, electroretingraphy, color vision testing and dark adaptometry. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Pamela Coppola, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for infantile nystagmus (IN). Forms of IN associated with variations in CACNA1F, FRMD7 and GPR143 genes have X-linked recessive inheritance, whereas variations in SLC38A8, TYR and TYRP1 genes have an autosomal recessive inheritance and variations in COL11A1, CRYBA1 and PAX6 genes have an autosomal dominant inheritance. The prevalence of all forms of IN is estimated to be 1 in 5000. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, age of onset, family history, ophthalmological examination, fundoscopy, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, slit lamp examination and visual evoked potentials. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Carla Marinelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). There is insufficient data to determine the prevalence of FEVR. Variations in the FZD4 (OMIM gene: 604579; OMIM disease: 133780), TSPAN12 (OMIM gene: 613138; OMIM disease: 613310) and ZNF408 (OMIM gene: 616454; OMIM disease: 616468) genes have autosomal dominant inheritance, whereas variations in LRP5 (OMIM gene: 603506; OMIM disease: 601813) have autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance and variations in NDP (OMIM gene: 300658; OMIM disease: 305390) have X-linked inheritance. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, family history, ophthalmological examination, fundoscopy, slit-lamp examination and fluorescein angiography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Alessandra Zulian, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Francesco Viola, Elena Garoli, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for choroideremia (CHM). CHM is an inherited X-linked recessive disorder associated with variations in the CHM gene. The overall prevalence of CHM varies from 1 in 50 000 to 1 in 100 000. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, visual field, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Alice Bruson, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Francesco Viola, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD). BVMD is mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner (autosomal recessive transmission is rare). The overall prevalence is currently unknown. BVMD is caused by mutations in the BEST1 gene. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, optical coherence tomography, electrooculography and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.