Sircuţa Carmen, Veres Mihaly and Azamfirei Leonard
Objective: To investigate the effect of anesthesia on rats’ ability of learning and over their impulsivity.
Material and Methods: We studied eight Wistar adult male rats, test and drug naive subjects. Animals were separated in two groups, group A and B with four members each. Group A included the anesthetized animals. The combination of ketamine, xylazine and piplophen in 2ml/kg body weight dosage was used and testing was done 24 hours after anesthesia. Group B was taken as control. The study was conducted using the ”Delay discounting” apparatus. Experiments assessing impulsive behavior were conducted using automated operant chambers, equipped with two nose-poke holes (holes where pellets of food were released). Rat’s answer was considered touching the nose-poke hole. One answer was rewarded with pellets of food of 45 mg each (small reward), while another hole released five pellets of 45 mg each (high reward). Both types of rewards were presented immediately after rat’s answer and were followed for a period of 25 seconds timeout. During the training phase, rats were placed in operant chambers 30 minutes per day, 5 consecutive days. The growing percent of preference for greater reward indicates learning. For the testing phase the procedure was similar, but a delay was introduced before the release of the big reward. During this phase, the preference for higher reward was indicative for non-impulsive behaviour.
Results: The results didn’t show significant statistically differences between the two groups.
Conclusions: Anesthesia had no effect on learning ability nor on impulsivity.
Cosmin Moldovan, Janos Szederjesi and Leonard Azamfirei
Background: Anesthesia and Intensive Care is a teaching subject that arguably benefits the most from the use of simulation based methods in education. The availability of technically advanced complex simulators allows instructors to develop training scenarios that can be deeply integrated within the teaching curriculum. Aim: The present study aimed to assess whether the students undergoing Anesthesia and Intensive Caresimulation training are satisfied with the perceived educational outcome. Material and method: We carried out a retrospective transversal study in which we analyzed 256 feedback forms received from medical students between October 2014 and June 2015. The forms contained 5 fixed questions that required rating a certain parameter with grades from 1 to 5. Results: The simulation sessions used in Anesthesia and Intensive Care training were well perceived by students, over 90% of whom considered that these training session are useful from a professional and career development point of view. Conclusion: Based on the students’ perception, simulation training sessions in Anesthesia and Intensive Care can be further developed and integrated with the clinical practical content of this subject.
Alexander A. Vitin, Leonard Azamfirei and Dana Tomescu
A comprehensive analysis of published cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, occurred in liver transplant recipients in the perioperative period, has been attempted in this review. Predisposing factors, precipitating events, potential physiological mechanisms, acute and post-event management have been discussed.
Moldovan Cosmin, Szederjesi Janos and Azamfirei Leonard
Medical simulation is used in a growing number of medical education institutions all over the world. Since 2013, the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tîrgu Mureş has introduced a number of simulation methods into the curriculum of certain subjects, the number of which is expanding. This article sums up some of the knowledge available in the literature regarding medical simulation and presents the general framework under which it is used in medical learning in our University.
Carmen Sircuţa, Tunde Lucza, Mihaly Veres, Ildiko Szomoru and Leonard Azamfirei
Objective: To analyse postoperative cognitive dysfunction’s (POCD) incidence and cognitive areas involved, in patients with cardiac and general surgery.
Material and Methods: Prospective observational study on 130 patients undergoing general or heart surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass, under general anesthesia. Two groups, 65 members each. Group A had a heart surgery and group B a noncardiac surgery. The same type of anesthetic drugs were used. All patients completed the Montreal Cognitive Assesment (MoCA) questionnaire: preoperative, 24 hours after stopping any medicine acting on central nervous system and 7 days postoperative. We compared the MoCA scores obtained on different cognitive domains in this moments for each group of patients, for neurocognitive functions: visuo-spatial executive, naming, attention, verbal fluency, abstraction, recall, orientation, final score. We compared the scores between the two groups at 24 hours and 7 days postoperatively for the same domains.
Results: POCD was found at 24 hours testing in both groups. At 7 days postoperatively POCD was not found in any of the groups. There was no statistically significant difference in total final score between two groups at 24 hours nor at 7 days postoperative testing. There are significant differences between the two groups, with lower score in cardiac group in 5 of 7 fields at 24 hours testing, with the persistence of difference in 2 of 7 fields at 7 days.
Conclusions: Overall POCD was present at 24 hours but was not found at 7 days testing for none of the groups. POCD is present in some neurocognitive domains and this depends on surgery type.
Benedek Orsolya, Dobreanu Minodora, Azamfirei Leonard, Veres Mihaly and Copotoiu Sanda-Maria
Trauma affects the activity of the innate immune system. The objective of this case report is to present the case that prompted us to analyse all the peripheral white blood cell lines. A 19 year old male patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Clinic with severe head trauma. The final diagnosis was set to be severe cerebral trauma with subarachnoid hemorrhage, right frontal and temporal cerebral contusions, diffuse cerebral edema, left parietal and temporal fracture, sphenoid hemosinus and right sided lung contusions.
Material and Method: Whole blood was immediatly analyzed by flow cytometry for leukocytes. Apoptosis was detected with Annexin V, necrotic cells were stained with propidium iodide. Samples were drawn three consecutive days.
Results: Lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes all showed marked increase in viability and decrease in necrosis during the biological monitoring in correlation with a positive clinical outcome. The most important changes were noted in the monocyte population.
Discussion: Although we started out monitoring neutrophil viability and death, this particular case prompted us not to overlook other leucocyte populations.
Conclusion: The apparent positive relationship between this patient’s positive clinical outcome and cellular viability and death changes is promising but they warrant further study.
Stoian Mircea, Stoian Adina, Costel Dumitru, Tripon Florin, Badea Iudita and Azamfirei Leonard
Introduction: The widespread use of sevoflurane as an induction and maintenance volatile agent of general anesthesia demostrates an increased safety profile. Sevoflurane contact with CO2 absorbents lead to the occurrence of toxic compounds such as Compund A and Compound B. Among the side efffects of Sevoflurane remember the renal toxic effect much discussed in the literature but still unresolved. In previous research we have demonstrated the glomerular protein changes as a result of exposure to Sevoflurane. In the current study we intend to monitor the changes in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine after exposure to Sevoflurane.
Material and method: We included in our study 90 patients who were anesthetized in the Department of Anesthesiology of the County Mure Hospital during 01.10.2009-01.10.2014. They had normal values for blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine and had no preoperative proteinuria. Serum and urine samples were taken preoperatively and at 24 and 72 hours postanesthetic and were analyzed in the laboratory. Proteinuria was determined by spectrophotometry.
Results: After protein quantitative determination by spectrophotometry and statistical anaysis we obtained significant differences by comparing the average preoperative/24 hours total protein (p<0.0001) and 24/72 hours (p<0.0001). There are no significant statistical differences by comparing the blood urea nitrogen at the three intervals (p<0.53) and no statistical changes for mean serum creatinine (p<0.18).
Conclusions: Changes in glomerular filtered proteins following exposure to Sevoflurane demonstrate its toxic effect on glomerular tubules. Lack of perioperative significant wich is why we recommend determining perioperative urinary protein as a marker of glomerular damage.
Suciu Bogdan Andrei, Denes Lorand, Hălmaciu Ioana, Mezei Tibor, Brînzaniuc Klara and Azamfirei Leonard
Lung cancer is the main cause of cancer death both in men and women. In spite of progress seen in the early diagnosis of lung cancer, and implementation of new treatment principles for these patients, 5 year survival of non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing surgery is low. Introduction of anti-angiogenic therapy administered concomitantly with conventional chemotherapy agents represented practically the first success seen in the treatment of lung cancer in the last 20 years. The aim of this paper is to review the literature informations about the importance of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) as a marker of angiogenesis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Therefore, we practiced a literature review about these topics: the importance of VEGF in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and his importance as a prognostic factor at these patients, the prognostic impact of serum levels of VEGF and of the cellular expression of VEGF at these patients and also we reviewed the value of the antiangiogenic therapy.