In this paper, a new method based on phase congruency is proposed to measure pitch lengths and surface braiding angles of two-dimensional biaxial braided composite preforms. Lab space transform and BM3D (block-matching and 3D filter) are used first to preprocess the original acquired images. A corner detection algorithm based on phase congruency is then proposed to detect the corners of the preprocessed images. Pitch lengths and surface braiding angles are finally measured based on the detected corner maps. Experimental results show that our method achieves the automatic measurement of pitch lengths and the surface braiding angles of biaxial braided composite preforms with high accuracy.
Background. Carbon ions (12C6+) are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by higher relative biological effectiveness than low LET radiation. The assessment of tumour radiosensitivity would be particularly useful in optimizing the radiation dose during radiotherapy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential value of the neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in assessing 12C6+ radiosensitivity of tumour cells.
Materials and methods. The doses of 12C6+ and X-rays used in the present study were 2 and 4 Gy. The survival fraction, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and repair kinetics of DSB were assayed with clonogenic survival, neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma MEC-1 cells at the time points of 0.5, 4, 16 and 24 h after 12C6+ and X-rays irradiation.
Results. The survival fraction for 12C6+ irradiation was much more inhibited than for X-rays (p < 0.05) in all three tumour cell lines tested. Substantial amounts of residual damage, assessed by the neutral comet assay, were present after irradiation (p < 0.05). The highest residual damage was observed at 0.5 or 4 h, both for 12C6+ and X-ray irradiation. However, the residual damage in HeLa and MEC-1 cells was higher for 12C6+ than X-rays (p < 0.05). The strongest induction of γH2AX foci was observed after 30 min, for all three tumour cell lines (p < 0.01). The franction of γH2AX foci persisted for at least 24 h after 12C6+ irradiation; in HeLa cells and MEC-1 was higher than after X-ray irradiation (p < 0.05). The correlation coefficients between the clonogenic survival, neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay were not statistically significant, except for some tumour cells at individual irradiation doses and types.
Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that the neutral comet assay and γ-H2AX foci assay could be used to assess the radiosensitivity of 12C6+ in human tumour cells.
Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials has provided a new technical tool to improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. To evaluate the influence of the residual IL in the fermentable sugars from enzymatic hydrolysis of IL pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials on the subsequent ethanol fermentation, the toxicity of the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) to Saccharomyces cerevisiae AY93161 was investigated. Firstly, the morphological structure, budding and metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AY93161 at different [BMIM]Cl concentrations were observed under an optical microscope. The results show that its single cell morphology remained unchanged at all [BMIM]Cl concentrations, but its reproduction rate by budding and its metabolic activity decreased with the [BMIM]Cl concentration increasing. The half effective concentration (EC50) and the half inhibition concentration (IC50) of [BMIM]Cl to Saccharomyces cerevisiae AY93161 were then measured using solid and liquid suspension culture and their value were 0.53 and 0.39 g.L-1 respectively. Finally, the influence of [BMIM]Cl on ethanol production was investigated. The results indicate that the [BMIM]Cl inhibited the growth and ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AY93161. This toxicity study provides useful basic data for further development in lignocellulosic ethanol production by using IL technology and it also enriches the IL toxicity data.